Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2020 | vol. 27 | No 2 |

Abstrakt

The paper is a review of analog and digital electronics dedicated to monitor nanosecond pulses. Choosing the optimal peak detector construction depends on many factors for example precision, complexity, or costs. The work shows some virtues and limitations of selected peak detection methods, for example standard peak detector with rectifier, sample and hold circuit with triggering units and ADC fast acquisition. However, the main attention is paid to problems of results from effective triggering signal for sample and hold operation. The obtained results allow for designing a peak detector construction as an alternative for costly and very complex fast acquisition systems based on ADC and FPGA technologies.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Achtenberg
Janusz Mikołajczyk
Dariusz Szabra
Artur Prokopiuk
Zbigniew Bielecki

Abstrakt

In the framework of non-destructive evaluation (NDE), an accurate and precise characterization of defects is fundamental. This paper proposes a novel method for characterization of partial detachment of thermal barrier coatings from metallic surfaces, using the long pulsed thermography (LPT). There exist many applications, in which the LPT technique provides clear and intelligible thermograms. The introduced method comprises a series of post-processing operations of the thermal images. The purpose is to improve the linear fit of the cooling stage of the surface under investigation in the logarithmic scale. To this end, additional fit parameters are introduced. Such parameters, defined as damage classifiers, are represented as image maps, allowing for a straightforward localization of the defects. The defect size information provided by each classifier is, then, obtained by means of an automatic segmentation of the images. The main advantages of the proposed technique are the automaticity (due to the image segmentation procedures) and relatively limited uncertainties in the estimation of the defect size.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Giuseppe Dinardo
Laura Fabbiano
Rosanna Tamborrino
Gaetano Vacca

Abstrakt

In this paper both envelope approach and morphological filters for characterisation of surface textures were proposed, applied and thoroughly examined. Obtained results were compared with those received after appliance of commonly-used algorithms. The effect of appliance of proposed procedures on surface topography parameters (from ISO 25178 standard) was taken into consideration. The following types of surface textureswere assessed: two-process plateau-honed cylinder liners, plateau-honed cylinder liners with additionally burnished dimples, turned piston skirts, grinded and/or isotropic topographies. It was assumed that envelope characteristics (envelope filtration) can provide results useful for assessments of deep and/or wide oil-reservoirs especially when they are edge located. Moreover, some near-valley areas of surface texture details can be less distorted when envelope filtering is accomplished. It was also found that closing and/or opening envelope filtration can be valuable for reduction of some surface topography measurement errors.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Przemysław Podulka

Abstrakt

The paper reports experimental results of the analysis of the 145Cr6 steel surface after erosion using the profilometrical technique by means of interferometry streaks. Erosive tests were carried out using abrasive containing quartz sand used in water jet cutting. Differences in the intensity of erosive wear were dependent on the angle of the abrasive stream (10◦ ; 15◦ ; 20◦ ; 30◦ ; 60◦ ; 90◦). In order to determine the characteristic features of the surface layer after the impact of the erosive stream, its characteristic parameters, such as roughness Ra and Sa for linear and field measurements, were analysed. Geometrical features of the regions investigated, such as shape, depth, angle of the abrasive stream, are presented. The analysis was carried out in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) coordinate systems.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Tarasiuk
Tadeusz Szymczak
Andrzej Borawski

Abstrakt

Due to the skin effect of eddy currents, the depth of cracks which can be detected by the traditional eddy current probe is very limited. In order to improve the ability of eddy current probes to inspect deep cracks in metal thick-walled structures, a new eddy current probe using an excitation system with phase shifted fields was proposed. Its feasibility for detecting deep cracks was verified by simulation and experiments. The results showed that the penetration depth of eddy currents in austenitic stainless steel is effectively enhanced by using the new probe.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Meixian Wu
Dongli Zhang
Chuanglong Wang

Abstrakt

A π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) shows high sensitivity to the ultrasonic (US) wave as compared to the conventional FBG due to the strong slow-light phenomenon at the resonance peak. However, its sensitivity is limited by the interrogation schemes. A combination of π-FBG and unbalanced fiber Mach– Zehnder interferometer (F-MZI) are theoretically analyzed and optimized for the highly sensitive acoustic sensor. The coupled-mode theory (CMT) and transfer matrix method (TMM) are used to establish the numerical modelling of π-FBG. For the optimized grating parameters of π-FBG, the proposed sensing system shows the high strain sensitivity of 1:2  108=", the highest dynamic strain resolution of 4:1f"= p Hz, and the highest wavelength shift resolution of 4:9  10��9 pm. Further, the proposed sensing system strongly supports both time andwavelength division multiplexing techniques. Therefore, the proposed sensing system shows extreme importance in single as well as quasi-distributed US acoustic wave sensing networks.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krishna Mohan Dwivedi
Gaurav Trivedi
Sunil K. Khijwania
Tomasz Osuch

Abstrakt

Recently, transition metal oxides, which exhibit favorable catalytic abilities, have also been investigated as a material for the detection of hydrazine (N2H4). It has been reported that mixed metal oxides usually offer a higher electrochemical activity than binary oxides. In this work, a TiO2–Fe2O3 coupled system is presented as an enhanced material with major applications in electrochemical detectors. The electrochemical behavior of glassy carbon electrodes modified with TiO2–Fe2O3 in the absence and presence of hydrazine was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV). Experimental results also suggest that the formation of the TiO2– Fe2O3 coupled system enhances electrochemical catalytic performance in N2H4 detection. The modification TiO2 + 2 mol% Fe2O3 provides good analytical performance of detection (0.13 mM) and quantification limits (0.39 mM). The presented coupled system provides the premise for a suitable material for a stable and sensitive N2H4 sensor.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Kusior
Iwona Karoń
Marta Radecka

Abstrakt

ISFET (Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors) microsensors are widely used for pH measurements as well as analytical and biomedical applications. At the same time, ISFET is a good candidate for testing various materials for their applications in sensitive membranes. For example, hydrogen sensitive carbonaceous films containing Pd nanocrystallites (C–Pd) make this material very interesting for sensor applications. A cost effective silicon technology was selected to fabricate n-channel transistors. The structures were coupled to specially designed double-sided PCB (Printed Circuit Board) holder. The holder enables assembly of the structure as part of an automatic stand. The last step of production of MIS structures was deposition of the C–Pd layer. The C–Pd films were fabricated by the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method in which C60 and palladium acetate were evaporated. Electrical resistance of structures with C–Pd films was measured during their interaction with hydrogen. Finally, a new type of highly sensitive FET hydrogen sensor with C–Pd layer was demonstrated and characterized.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Firek
Sławomir Krawczyk
Halina Wronka
Elżbieta Czerwosz
Jan Szmidt

Abstrakt

Thiswork presents results of comparative studies of the optical absorption coefficient spectra of ion implanted layers in silicon. Three nondestructive and noncontact techniques were used for this purpose: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), modulated free carriers absorption (MFCA) and the photo thermal radiometry (PTR). Results obtained with the ellipsometric method are the proof of correctness of the results obtained with the MFCAandPTRtechniques. These techniques are usually used for investigations of recombination parameters of semiconductors. They are not used for investigations of the optical parameters of semiconductors. Optical absorption coefficient spectra of Fe+ and Ge+ high energy and dose implanted layers in silicon, obtained with the three techniques, are presented and compared.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Dorywalski
Łukasz Chrobak
Mirosław Maliński

Abstrakt

Assessment of the state of a pulse power supply requires effective and accurate methods to measure and reconstruct the tracking error. This paper proposes a tracking error measurement method for a digital pulse power supply. A de-noising algorithm based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is used to analyse the energy of each Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) component, identify the turning point of energy, and reconstruct the signal to obtain the accurate tracking error. The effectiveness of this EMD method is demonstrated by simulation and actual measurement. Simulation was used to compare the performance of time domain filtering, wavelet threshold de-noising, and the EMD de-noising algorithm. In practical use, the feedback of current on the prototype of the power supply is sampled and analysed as experimental data.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Rongkun Wang
Sigun Sun
Bingtao Hu

Abstrakt

The grid-tied inverter synchronizes with the network on the basis of the instantaneous voltage phase angle. This angle is computed by the so-called synchronization algorithms. During grid disturbances, it is estimated with a certain accuracy, which varies for different disturbances and depends on the choice of algorithm. The tests presented here determine how to make an optimal selection of the synchronization algorithm. The research methods used are modeling, simulation and analysis of the results obtained. One of the most important outcomes is the determination of the root-mean-square sync error and its dynamics denotation. The research conclusions should be of particular interest to designers of distributed energy systems with a large number of inverter energy sources.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wojciech Jarzyna
Dariusz Zieliński
K. Gopakumar

Abstrakt

The article presents the assumptions, characteristics and description of the implementation of a pilot system for on-line monitoring of partial discharges in heads of the high-voltage cable lines. The main purpose of the implementation was to increase the reliability of cable line heads by equipping them with a system of continuous assessment of technical condition with direct transmission of measurement data and alarms to the SCADA system. In order to achieve the assumed goal, unconventional methods for measuring partial discharges were used, the application of which does not require disconnecting the line from the voltage. The implementation was carried out on an active 110 kV high voltage cable line in the area of activity of one of the Distribution System Operators.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Konarski
Paweł Węgierek

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).
Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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