Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2020 | vol. 27 | No 3 |

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to compare the efficiency of various outlier correction methods for ECG signal processing in biometric applications. The main idea is to correct anomalies in various segments of ECG waveform rather than skipping a corrupted ECG heartbeat in order to achieve better statistics. Experiments were performed using a self-collected Lviv Biometric Dataset. This database contains over 1400 records for 95 unique persons. The baseline identification accuracy without any correction is around 86%. After applying the outlier correction the results were improved up to 98% for autoencoder based algorithms and up to 97.1% for sliding Euclidean window. Adding outlier correction stage in the biometric identification process results in increased processing time (up to 20%), however, it is not critical in the most use-cases.

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Authors and Affiliations

Su Jun
Miroslaw Szmajda
Volodymyr Khoma
Yuriy Khoma
Dmytro Sabodashko
Orest Kochan
Jinfei Wang
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Abstract

This paper presents a study on the influence of psychophysical stimuli on facial thermal emissions. Two independent groups of stimuli are proposed to investigate facial changes resulting from human stress and physical exhaustion. One pertains to physical effort while the other is linked to stress invoked by solving a simple written test. Subjects’ face reactions were measured through collecting and analysing long-wavelength infrared images. A methodology for numerical processing of images is proposed. Results of numerical analysis with respect to different facial regions of interest are provided. An automatic deep learning based algorithm to classify specific thermal face patterns is proposed. The algorithm consists of detection of regions of interests as well as numerical analysis of thermal energy emissions of facial parts. The results of presented experiments allowed the authors to associate emission changes in specific facial regions with psychophysical stimulations of the person being examined. This work proves high usability of thermal imaging to capture changes of heat distribution of face as reactions for external stimuli.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Panasiuk
Piotr Prusaczyk
Artur Grudzień
Marcin Kowalski
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Abstract

Alternating current a.c. measurements enable to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in semiconductor materials. Impedance spectroscopy has been successfully applied to study the responses of gas sensors based on metal oxides, such as TiO2, SnO2 and TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites. This work is devoted to dynamic measurements of hydrogen sensor behaviour over the temperature range of 300–450◦C. Frequency dependence of the impedance signal gives evidence that 50 mol% TiO2/50 mol% SnO2 nanocomposites should be treated as resistive-type sensors. Temporal evolution of the response to 500 ppm H2 at 320◦C indicates a very short response time and much longer recovery.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Szafraniak
Anna Kusior
Marta Radecka
Katarzyna Zakrzewska
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Abstract

In this paper the problem of resistance measurement of ultrathin conductive lines on dielectric substrates dedicated for printing electronic industry is discussed. The measured line is transformed in a non-invasive way into a resonance circuit. By using a magnetic coupling between the source line and the tested line, the resistance measurement can be performed non-invasively, i:e. without a mechanical contact. The proposed contactless resistance measurement method is based on the resonance quality factor estimation and it is an example of the inverse problem in metrology.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Szybiński
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Abstract

This paper focuses on automatic locking of tracking filters used in optical frequency transfer systems. General concept of such a system is briefly described and the problems with its automatic startup, originating in the use of the analog phase locked loop to filter weak, received signal, are discussed. A supervisory circuitry and algorithm to solve these problems is proposed. The frequency of the signal to be filtered is measured indirectly and the output frequency of the tracking filter is monitored. In the case of lack of synchronism (i:e: after the startup) a significant difference of these frequencies is measured and the supervisory algorithm forces the filter to tune into the right frequency and then allows it to synchronize. A system with the proposed solution was implemented and tested experimentally on a fiber optic link with high attenuation and multiple optical connectors. Transient signals during locking were recorded to investigate the system’s behavior in real environment. The system was evaluated in the link causing synchronization losses every 17 min on average. During measurements over 3 days, the whole system was synchronized for over 99.98% of time despite these difficult conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Włodarczyk
Przemysław Krehlik
Łukasz Śliwczyński
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Abstract

Achieving a reliable fault diagnosis for gears under variable operating conditions is a pressing need of industries to ensure productivity by averting unwanted breakdowns. In the present work, a hybrid approach is proposed by integrating Hu invariant moments and an artificial neural network for explicit extraction and classification of gear faults using time-frequency transforms. The Zhao-Atlas-Marks transform is used to convert the raw vibrations signals from the gears into time-frequency distributions. The proposed method is applied to a single-stage spur gearbox with faults created using electric discharge machining in laboratory conditions. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in classifying the faults in gears with high accuracy.

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Authors and Affiliations

F. Michael Thomas Rex
A. Andrews
A. Krishnakumari
P. Hariharasakthisudhan
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Abstract

This article is focused on considerations based on experimental studies concerning changes of selected parameters of identical compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) intended for use in buildings during their operation. The studies constituted a long-term experiment whose goal was an evaluation of selected operating parameters of the CFLs in terms of meeting the requirements set out in the specified regulations as well as the issue of marking the lamps with the energy efficiency class. The measurements were performed with the authors’ experimental setup consisting of original equipment designed and made especially for the purpose of the measurements. The studies covered registration of the luminous flux as well as selected electrical parameters such as active power, current and the power factor during the so-called “start-up time” and operation time equal to 100 h, 500 h, 1000 h, 2000 h, etc. with a 1000 h step. The studies were finished with the moment of natural burnout of the CFLs tested. The results showed that the biggest drawback of CFLs is lack of preservation of the required time to reach 60% of the stabilized luminous flux just after short time of lamp operation. Similarly when assessing the conformity of the parameters declared by the manufacturer that have been verified, it can be stated that they are true only at the initial stage of lamp operation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Zygarlicki
Małgorzata Zygarlicka
Janusz Mroczka
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Abstract

This paper presents a new simple and accurate frequency estimator of a sinusoidal signal based on the signal autocorrelation function (ACF). Such an estimator was termed as the reformed covariance for half-length autocorrelation (RC-HLA). The designed estimator was compared with frequency estimators well-known from the literature, such as the modified covariance for half-length autocorrelation (MC-HLA), reformed Pisarenko harmonic decomposition for half-length autocorrelation(RPHD-HLA), modified Pisarenko harmonic decomposition for half-length autocorrelation (MPHD-HLA), zero-crossing (ZC), and iterative interpolated DFT (IpDFT-IR) estimators. We determined the samples of the ACF of a sinusoidal signal disturbed by Gaussian noise (simulations studies) and the samples of the ACF of a sinusoidal voltage(experimental studies), calculated estimators based on the obtained samples, and computed the mean squared error(MSE) to compare the estimators. The errorswere juxtaposed with the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB). The research results have shown that the proposed estimator is one of the most accurate, especially for SNR > 25 dB. Then the RC-HLA estimator errors are comparable to the MPHD-HLA estimator errors. However, the biggest advantage of the developed estimator is the ability to quickly and accurately determine the frequency based on samples collected from no more than five signal periods. In this case, the RC-HLA estimator is the most accurate of the estimators tested.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sergiusz Sienkowski
Mariusz Krajewski
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Abstract

The precise location of the needle tip is critical in robot-assisted needle-based percutaneous interventions. An automatic needle tip measuring system based on binocular vision technology with the advantages of non-contact, excellent accuracy and high stability is designed and evaluated. First the measurement requirements of the prostate intervention robot are introduced. A laser interferometer is used as the reference for measuring the position of the needle tip whose relative position variation is described as the needle tip distance in the time domain. The parameters of the binocular cameras are obtained by Zhang’s calibration method. Then a robust needle tip extraction algorithm is specially designed to detect the pixel coordinates of the needle tip without installing the marked points. Once the binocular cameras have completed the stereo matching, the 3D coordinates of the needle tip are estimated. The measurement capability analysis (MCA) is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. The accuracy of the system can be controlled within 0.3621 mm. The agreement analysis is conducted by the Bland–Altman analysis, and the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.999847. The P/T ratio value is 16.42% in the repeatability analysis. The results indicate that the accuracy and stability of the binocular vision needle tip measuring system are adequate to meet the requirement for the needle tip measurement in percutaneous interventions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yuyang Lin
Yunlai Shi
Jun Zhang
Fugang Wang
Haichao Sun
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Abstract

Generation of two identical ns laser pulses spaced by a single s time interval by means of sequential switching of the output mirror transmittance in a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser is reported, to our knowledge, for the first time. The theoretical study of the process of transmission losses switching is developed. This analysis confirms the possibility of generation of two identical Q-switched laser pulses with 100% efficiency with respect to the referenced single pulse energy. The detailed characterization of the laser in free-running, single and double Q-switching regimes is presented. The laser can be applied in different branches of metrology as PIV, LIBS or holographic interferometry.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Skórczakowski
Waldemar Żendzian
Zdzisław Jankiewicz
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Abstract

The paper presents a low noise voltage FET amplifier for low frequency noise measurements. It was built using two stages of an op amp transimpedance amplifier. To reduce voltage noise, eight-paralleled low noise discrete JFETs were used in the first stage. The designed amplifier was then compared to commercial ones. Its measured value of voltage noise spectral density is around 24 nV/√ Hz, 3 nV/√ Hz, 0.95 nV/√Hz and 0.6 nV/√ Hz at the frequency of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 Hz, respectively. A −3 dB frequency response is from ∼ 20 mHz to ∼ 600 kHz.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Achtenberg
Janusz Mikołajczyk
Zbigniew Bielecki
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Abstract

This article is focused on considerations based on experimental studies concerning changes of selected parameters of identical compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) intended for use in buildings during their operation. The studies constituted a long-term experiment whose goal was an evaluation of selected operating parameters of the CFLs in terms of meeting the requirements set out in the specified regulations as well as the issue of marking the lamps with the energy efficiency class. The measurements were performed with the authors’ experimental setup consisting of original equipment designed and made especially for the purpose of the measurements. The studies covered registration of the luminous flux as well as selected electrical parameters such as active power, current and the power factor during the so-called “start-up time” and operation time equal to 100 h, 500 h, 1000 h, 2000 h, etc. with a 1000 h step. The studies were finished with the moment of natural burnout of the CFLs tested. The results showed that the biggest drawback of CFLs is lack of preservation of the required time to reach 60% of the stabilized luminous flux just after short time of lamp operation. Similarly when assessing the conformity of the parameters declared by the manufacturer that have been verified, it can be stated that they are true only at the initial stage of lamp operation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Tabaka
Paweł Rózga

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

Open Access policy

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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