Humanities and Social Sciences

Prawo Morskie

Content

Prawo Morskie | 2018 | No XXXIV |

Abstract

The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.

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Abstract

The aim of the study is to examine the importance of economic argumentation in international maritime disputes. The paper first explains what the international maritime disputes, their sources and types are, what principles they are subjected to. It also established what should be understood by economic arguments, emphasizing their relative nature, as well as showing the potential of the Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982 as a basis for formulating economic argumentation. The importance of economic argumentation was considered in relation to international disputes regarding the legal status of maritime territories, delimitation of maritime zones, power over the sea and use of the sea. Research, carried out, leads to the following conclusions: 1) economic arguments are present in the reasoning of the parties as well as dispute settlement bodies. However, their probative value is limited; 2) in disputes related to the status of maritime features economic reasoning appears in the context of necessity to demonstrate that they can be a basis for delimitation; 3) in delimitation disputes, addressing economic arguments is more complex and contradictory. Economic arguments may be useful in the second phase of delimitation when relevant circumstances are considered. However, the existing practice shows that the range of economic arguments is limited (they cannot serve as a reason for correction of natural inequalities). International jurisprudence denies taking into account arguments based on level of economic development or economic or financial difficulties of a state (except for the catastrophic repercussions for the livelihood and economic wellbeing of the population), the needs of economic development or performance of economic activities (mining, fishing, shipping). An argument associated with assurance of deposit unity is of some importance (when resources are known or readily ascertainable); 4) in disputes concerning the power over the sea some weight is held by an argument associated with the establishment of economic authority, in particular, of a regulatory and control nature; 5) in disputes related to the use of the sea, the importance of economic reasoning is varied. In disputes concerning the prompt release, the role of the economic argument is limited. On the contrary, it is relevant in disputes related to the violation of rights and economic interests of States and people, if they are protected by international law.

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Abstract

The continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (NM) accounts for a great value for States. The development of technologies and science has allowed the human economic and scientific activities on the deep parts of the ocean floor. The continental shelf is rich with living resources. The living resources of continental shelf are also valuable, since they possess valuable genetic resources for pharmaceuticals and commercial products. Many valuable non-living resources are situated on the continental shelf, including hydrocarbons (oil and gas) and minerals (e.g. manganese, nickel, cobalt, gold, diamonds, copper, tin, titanium, iron, chromium and galena). Therefore, States have spent significant resources on conducting a research and exploring their continental shelf and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) has received seventy-seven submissions and issued twenty-nine recommendations pursuant to Article 76 (8) of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With the expected improvement of technological capabilities in decades to come, especially, in deep waters, the continental shelf will be explored more thoroughly and perhaps will meet no technological limits.

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Abstract

The Author tries to “think out of the box”, presenting “Sponsalia ex hoc mundo” (“Hand fastening out of this world”). The title reflects the view that the outer space sciences and the sea sciences are analytically separable, but practically interlinked. It might be observed in the context of space technology and satellite technics, a new system of management and government, as well as a new system of law and policy. Nowadays, the outer space infrastructure (the use of artificial Earth satellites for Direct Television Broadcasting, communications, remote sensing, navigation, military missiles) affects infrastructure of our Planet, including maritime infrastructure. There is, therefore, the need for a new face of integrated system of science and practice.

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Abstract

Instytucja zarządzania statkami morskimi (ship management) nie jest zbyt dobrze znana ani polskiemu prawu, ani polskiej doktrynie prawa morskiego, pomimo tego że rola zarządzającego statkiem (ship manager) rosła sukcesywnie przez wiele lat. Jej początki przypadają na lata osiemdziesiąte poprzedniego stulecia, w okresie poważnych zmian na rynku żeglugowym, gdy dochodziło do wielu bankructw przedsiębiorstw armatorskich i gdy banki hipoteczne musiały zwracać się do fachowych podmiotów zarządzających statkami o pomoc w prowadzeniu działalności żeglugowej. Trzydzieści lat temu, w 1988 r. BIMCO opublikowała pierwszy wzorzec umowy o zarządzanie statkiem o nazwie SHIPMAN, który zapewnił pewną równowagę pomiędzy prawami i obowiązkami armatora i zarządzającego statkiem oraz jednolitość w szeroko stosowanych na rynku żeglugowym umowach tego rodzaju, szczególnie w podziale odpowiedzialności pomiędzy stronami. Po wejściu w życie w 1998 r. Kodeksu ISM, który wprowadził do prawa międzynarodowego instytucję Company jako podmiot odpowiedzialny za bezpieczną eksploatację statku, rola zarządzającego wzrosła niepomiernie. Było to między innymi przyczyną tego, że BIMCO przygotowała nowy formularz umowy o nazwie SHIPMAN 98. Po kolejnych kilku latach formularz został uaktualniony i jego nowa wersja została wydana w 2009 r. Głównym celem artykułu jest przybliżenie czytelnikowi zagadnień związanych z zarządzaniem statkiem morskim i podmiotem nim zarządzającym (ship manager), przez omówienie i przetłumaczenie na język polski opracowanego przez BIMCO nowego wzorca umowy o zarządzanie statkiem o nazwie SHIPMAN 2009.

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Abstract

This article aims to discuss the notion of environmental damage under the CLC 1992 and FUND 1992 as stated in the new Guidelines for Presenting Claims for Environmental Damage prepared by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. That approach is contrasted with the solution adopted in the United States of America under the OPA. Particular attention is given to the problems of compensation for lost services of the environment, as well as providing alternative environment as a restoration measure. The judgments of French and Spanish courts in the Erika and Prestige cases are discussed, raising questions as to suitability of the CLC 1992/FUND 1992 system.

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Abstract

The purpose of this analysis is to deal with the first of the conditions for commencement of laytime, i.e. obligation of the vessel to arrive at the agreed destination. The position, prima facie, with regard to berth, dock or port is relatively straightforward, it having been established that the vessel only becomes an arrived ship when it enters the specified berth, dock or port, respectively. In all three cases, in principle, the risk of delay in reaching the specified berth, dock or port is borne by the shipowner. In many cases, the shipowners, for obvious reasons are not prepared to bear such a risk for loss and take appropriate action. In particular, they demand the inclusion, in the charterparty, of a specific clause shifting the risk of such loss. We will deal therein below with one of the most commonly used forms of such a clause namely – “Time lost waiting for a berth clause” against broader picture of current English jurisdiction.

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