Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

Content

Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2019 | vol. 50 | No 4 |

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Abstract

Given the significance of teacher characteristics in student motivation for class attendance, the present paper aimed to investigate the roles of teacher success, credibility, and stroke in students’ Willingness to Attend Classes (WTAC). To this aim, a total number of 276 undergraduate students majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) and English Language and Literature completed four scales: Characteristics of Successful EFL Teachers Questionnaire (Moafian & Pishghadam, 2008), Teacher Credibility Scale (McCroskey & Teven, 1999), Student Stroke Scale (Pishghadam & Khajavi, 2014), and WTAC Scale (Rajabnejad, Pishghadam, & Saboori, 2017). For data analysis, Pearson multiple correlation coefficients and path analysis were employed. The results of correlational analyses revealed a significantly positive correlation, first, between teacher success and students’ WTAC, secondly, between teacher credibility and students’ WTAC, and thirdly, between teacher stroke and students’ WTAC. Furthermore, the results of path analysis indicated that students’ WTAC was significantly predicted by teacher success, credibility, and stroke. At the end, the results were discussed in light of previous findings, and potential conclusions were made in the EFL context accordingly.

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Authors and Affiliations

Reza Pishghadam
Ali Derakhshan
Kiyana Zhaleh
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Abstract

AIMS: The primary goal of the presented research was to investigate the memory effects of implicit negation, conveyed using implicatures, as compared to explicit negation. We also speculated that implicit negation might require more cognitive effort.

METHODS: Three experiments were conducted (total N = 181), in which participants were presented with a description containing implicit or explicit negation, followed by a memory recognition test of items present, negated or not mentioned in the description. We manipulated the pace at which the description was presented (own pace vs. fixed) and whether participants were informed about the upcoming recognition test.

RESULTS: We found no differences between explicit and implicit negation in the number of false alarms to negated and not mentioned items, response times or time spent reading the source material. Bayesian analyses indicated a 90% probability that there were no differences in the number of false alarms between explicit and implicit negation.

CONCLUSIONS: Implicit and explicit negation lead to a similar quality of recognition, and seem to require a similar amount of time to process, indicating comparable cognitive effort.

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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Maciuszek
Mateusz Polak
Martyna Sekulak
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Abstract

Starting in the early years of education, math anxiety is negatively related to mathematic outcomes, therefore there is a need for its adequate measurement in young children. This study presents the psychometric properties of the modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale for Elementary Children (mAMAS-E) for first- to third-grade children based on mAMAS. The validity of mAMAS-E was determined by a series of tests. The analysis confirmed its two-factor structure (Testing and Learning), positive relationships between mAMAS-E and math, general, and test anxiety, and a negative relationship with mathematical achievement. Children with a high level of math self-esteem and math self-confidence (but not Polish language self-esteem and self-confidence) have lower math anxiety in comparison to those with a moderate level. The results also indicate that girls have a higher level of math anxiety than boys. The validity and internal consistency of mAMAS-E are satisfactory; therefore, mAMAS-E may be a recommendable questionnaire for measuring math anxiety in young children.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Szczygieł
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Abstract

In-group identification is necessary for in-group members to take responsibility for the past transgressions of the in-group. However, even among high identifiers, the reactions to reminders of the in-group’s transgression may differ depending on the beliefs members hold about their in-group. Results of a cross-sectional study (N = 441), indicate that collective narcissism (i.e., a belief that the in-group’s importance is not sufficiently recognized by others) versus in-group satisfaction (i.e., a belief that the in-group is of high value and a reason to be proud of) have opposite unique associations with the evaluation of the artistic value of films referring to Polish involvement in pogroms during the Second World War (Ida and The Aftermath, a proxy of an attitude towards knowledge about past national transgressions). Collective narcissism predicted lower, whereas in-group satisfaction predicted higher, perceived artistic value of the films. Those unique relationships could only be observed when the positive association between collective narcissism and in-group satisfaction was partialled out.

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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Dyduch-Hazar
Blazej Mrozinski
Claudia Simão
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala
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Abstract

The aim of the paper was to analyse relations between power in professional work and in close sexual relationships. Power in professional work was analysed with respect to the managerial position, the number of subordinates and salary. Power in close sexual relationships was determined on the basis of a sense of reinforcement of power as a sexual motivation, a propensity for sexual domination, the sense of power in relations with a partner in a close relationship, sexual assertiveness, realization of one’s own sexual phantasies and inclination to initiate sexual activity. The research was carried out on a group of 205 participants in which 100 of respondents occupied managerial positions at work and 105 were subordinates. The following tools were used: the Sense of Power Scale (Anderson, John, & Keltner, 2012), the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire (Snell, Fisher, & Walters, 1993), the AMORE scale (Hill & Preston, 1996), the Need for Power and Influence Questionnaire (Bennett, 1988) and a data sheet. The results showed that power in the workplace was correlated a more frequent initiation of sexual activity, greater assertiveness in sexual matters, more frequent realisation of one’s own phantasies and an increased propensity for sexual domination.

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Authors and Affiliations

Eugenia Mandal
Dagna Joanna Kocur
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Abstract

Job crafting is an employees activity aimed to change and improve own work which serves to find the meaning in job. Activities related to job crafting usually occur beyond the superiors’ knowledge so the feeling of autonomy of a worker may hinder or encourage them to craft job. The study aimed to determine the correlations between organizational rank and job crafting with respect to a mediating role of autonomy and organizational tenure as a moderator. Study 1 (N = 102) showed that people having managerial positions undertake task crafting more often than non-managers. Managers and non-managers are no different with regards to cognitive and relational crafting. Autonomy mediated the relationship between organizational rank and task crafting. Most of the results in study 2 (N = 99) was a replication of the results of study 1. The differences are probably related to a various length of organizational tenure for a current organization. The results of the presented studies indicate the role of autonomy in undertaking job crafting, what is being discussed in the literature worldwide and Polish studies.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mateusz Minda
Karolina Mudło-Głagolska
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Abstract

We aimed to investigate whether educational activities in the form of guided tours through an exhibition change the appreciation of art when young experts (i.e. first-years students of artistic faculties) view contemporary art in a gallery. Participants viewed and assessed the artworks presented at the gallery twice – before and after taking part in a guided tour led by a gallery educator. The guide-led tour increased both understanding and ratings (the hedonic value) of the artworks, which is consistent with the “effort after meaning” hypothesis and also with the model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgments. Our results suggest that the reception of works of art by young experts is changed when they are under the influence of extensive contextual information.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Szubielska
Agata Sztorc
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Abstract

This study examined the relationship between gender role conflict and attitude towards psychological help-seeking. This study involved 120 university students from a university. Gender Role Conflict Scale was used to measure gender role conflict and Attitude towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form was used to measure attitude towards psychological help-seeking. The results found there is a significant negative relationship between gender role conflict and attitude towards seeking psychological help. The results suggest that it is essential for mental health professionals to recognise the impact of gender roles on the counselling process.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nirooj Loganathan
Fatt Mee Foo
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Abstract

Previous research showed that children can exhibit preferences for social categories already at preschool age. One of the crucial factors in the development of children’s attitudes toward others is children’s observation and imitation of adults’ nonverbal messages. The aim of our study is to examine whether children’s tendency to perceive and follow nonverbally expressed attitudes toward other people is related to ingroup bias, i.e. the tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups. We examined 175 preschool children (age in months: 61–87; M = 72.6, SD = 6.53) presenting them with a video of a conversation between a message sender and a message recipient. The study was conducted in a minimal group paradigm. We found that children accurately identified the message sender’s attitude toward the recipient and also generalized this attitude to other members of the new group. We also found explicit ingroup bias among children from the message sender’s group. However, no generalization of the sender’s attitude to other ingroup members was found. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the role of imitation of adult’s non-verbal behavior for the development of social attitudes among children.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Jurasińska
Marcin Bukowski
Marta Białecka-Pikul

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
Dariusz Doliński, Committee for Psychological of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
 

Managing Editor:
Michal Grycz


Editorial Advisory Board:
Albert Bandura, USA
Jerzy Brzeziński, Poland
Daniel Cervone, USA
Janusz Czapiński, Poland
David Funder, USA
Gary Greenberg, USA
Hubert Hermans, Netherlands
Robert House, USA
Arthur Jago, USA
Krzysztof Kaniasty, USA
Ida Kurcz, Poland
Aleksandra Luszczynska, Poland
Tomasz Maruszewski, Poland
Jerzy Mączyński, Poland
Robert McCrae, USA
Stephen Motovidlo, USA
Dennis O’Keefee, United Kingdom
Zofia Ratajczak, Poland
Rolf Reber, Norway
Helena Sęk, Poland
Peter Smith, United Kingdom
Wilhelmina Wosinska, USA
Zbigniew Zaleski, Poland


Honorary Editorial Board:
Alois Angleitner, Germany
John Benjafield, Canada
Gian Caprara, Italy
Joseph Danks, USA
Anthony Greenwald, USA
Robert Hinde, United Kingdom
Friedhart Klix, Germany
Arie Kruglanski, USA
Richard Nisbett, USA
Guido Peeters, Belgium
Jane Allyn Pillliavin, USA
John Rijsman, Netherlands
Paul Slovic, USA
Wolfgang Stroebe, Germany
Velina Topalova, Bulgaria
Boris Velichovsky, Russia
John von Right, Finland

 
Language Editors:
Marlena Johnson, Poland

Contact

Polish Psychological Bulletin
SWPS Wrocław
ul. Ostrowskiego 30B
53-238 Wrocław
Tel: 71 7507214

e-mail: ppb@swps.edu.pl

Instructions for authors

Instrukcja dla autorów

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are encouraged to submit papers electronically via our Editorial System: http://www.editorialsystem.com/ppb

Your covering mail or letter should include full contact details. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources. Masked reviews are optional, and authors who wish masked reviews must specifically request them when they submit their manuscripts. For masked reviews, each copy of the manuscript must include a separate title page with authors’ names and affiliations, and these ought not to appear anywhere in the manuscript.

Authors should prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.) Only articles written in English will be considered.

Type: (a) title page, (b) abstract and up to six keywords, (c) text, (d) references, (e) footnotes, (f) figures, and (g) tables on separate pages in order. Abstract should be no more than 1200 characters and spaces (which is approximately 160 words).

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. Masked reviews are optional. Authors requesting a masked review should write it in the cover letter that they want a double-blind review, and they should remove all author names, institutions, and other identifying information from the manuscript.

Editorial Policy

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources. Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. All papers are reviewed with respect to their scholarly merit. Masked reviews are optional, and authors who wish masked reviews must specifically request them when they submit their manuscripts. Only articles written in English will be considered. It is recommended that authors who are not native speakers have their papers checked by native-speaker colleague before submission.

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

The author agrees, upon acceptance of the article for publication, to transfer to Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article and its content. These rights are transferred for the duration of copyright as defined by international low. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and the journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors may of course, use the material elsewhere after publication providing that prior permission is obtained from Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences.

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