Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

Content

Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2019 | vol. 50 | No 2 |

Abstract

Drawing on the stressor–emotion model, the study examines the mechanisms of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) development: specifically (1) the direct effect of job stressor (bullying at work); (2) the moderation effect of the Dark Triad (DT) and job control (JC); and (3) the moderated moderation effect (DT x JC) on the job stressor–CWB link. Data were collected among 763 white- and blue-collar workers. The hypotheses were tested by means of the PROCESS method. As expected in the hypotheses, high job stressor was directly related to high CWB, and DT moderated (increased) the link. JC also moderated the job stressor–CWB link, but the moderation effect was in a direction opposite to expectations. High job control participants were more likely to report CWB when they reported a high level of the stressors. The moderated moderation effect was supported. JC increases the moderation effect of DT on the job stressor–CWB link. The highest level of CWB was observed when DT and JC were high. The findings provide further insight into processes leading to the development of CWB.

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and temperament. It was assumed that the two main components of EI – experiential and strategic – have different temperament correlates. One hundred and four Polish university students aged 19 to 26 completed self-descriptive questionnaires of temperament and emotional intelligence. The results confirmed that the relationship with temperament depends on the examined component of EI. Acceptance of emotions (which is a subcomponent of experiential EI) only correlated with two temperamental traits – activity and briskness. Many more dependencies were found in relation to strategic EI. Endurance, strength of inhibition, sensory sensitivity and perseveration turned out to be significant predictors of emotional control, which jointly explained 44% of the variance in results, while perseveration and sensory sensitivity explained 28% of the variance in results on the understanding emotions scale. Based on the results obtained, it can be assumed that the configuration of temperament traits that determines a high capacity for processing stimulation is most conductive to strategic EI. Other propitious traits include those that determine the speed of neural processes, flexibility and ease of adaptation to changing conditions as well as a low sensitivity threshold to sensory stimulus.

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Abstract

On one hand, the development of medicine allows to prolong the life of patients who previously had no chance for survive, on the other hand, though, it condemns some of them and their loved ones to extreme suffering. Fear of suffering is the main reason for a possible wish for euthanasia. The research aimed at measuring the attitude towards euthanasia among doctors and nurses who come in professional contact with terminally ill patients or patients versus the medical personnel who do not come in such contact. The research included: age, profession and workplace as well as personal experience in providing care to the seriously ill. The Attitudes Towards Euthanasia Questionnaire by Głębocka and Gawor was used during the research. The method consists of three scales: Informational Support, Liberal Approach and Conservative Approach. Medical stuff taking care of terminally ill patients were less conservative in their opinions than the participants from the comparative group. The intergroup differences in terms of Liberal Approach towards Euthanasia Scale were not obtained. It turned out that the age fostered the conservative approach, and working at the intensive care units or taking care of an ill relative fostered the reduction of such approach. All the respondents approve the idea of providing the patients and their families with informational support. Working in intensive care units or taking care of terminally ill relatives seems to reduce conservative attitudes towards euthanasia because persons with such experience have personally faced the multifaceted emotional and physical costs of suffering.

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Abstract

This article looks at the semantic space of abstract and concrete concepts from the perspective of distributed models of conceptual representations. It focuses on abstract metaphorical classes and the mechanisms through which these concepts are processed. When the metaphor X is a Y is understood, X is included in the abstract metaphorical class of Y. This metaphorical class is abstract because the most of semantic features of Y are filtered out through a suppressiveoriented mode of processing. It is suggested that abstract metaphorical classes of living things are usually defined by a single or a very small set of semantic features. Therefore, such metaphorical classes are highly abstract. On the other hand, abstract metaphorical classes of nonliving things are defined by a relatively larger cluster of semantic features. Therefore, abstract metaphorical classes of nonliving things have a relatively higher degree of concreteness compared to those of living things. In other words, abstract metaphorical classes of living things and nonliving things are rather different in terms of nature and the structure of semantic space.

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Abstract

We define the need for sense-making as the desire to find reliable connections between the objects, situations, and relationships that people encounter. We have proposed and tested that there are possible individual differences in the need for sense-making and that these individual differences are insightful in characterizing individuals and their behaviors. A correlational study (N = 229) showed that need for sense-making was positively related to self-esteem, extroversion, conscientiousness, openness, and sense of control. Additionally, a higher need for sense-making was associated with greater perception of it as an important part of people’s identity. Thus, need for sense-making is relevant to understanding individual differences and can furthermore comprise a significant element of people’s identity. These results break new ground in the study of individual differences in the need for sense-making and can be of great importance in work and organizational psychology.

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Abstract

The domain of motion events is widely used to metaphorically describe abstract concepts, particularly emotional states. Why motion events are effective for describing abstract concepts is the question that this article intends to answer. In the literature of the field, several reasons have been suggested to be behind the suitability of motion events for describing these concepts, such as high concreteness of motion events, their high imageability, and the ability of comprehender to simultaneously imagine components of motion events. This article suggests that motion events are particularly effective for metaphorical description of those domains which have the feature of dynamic change over a period of time. This is particularly the case with emotional states. Since changes in emotions take place throughout a period of time, they could best be described by motion events which have the same feature. In other words, the continuous change in emotions is understood in terms of continuous change in the location of a moving object in the 3D space. Based on the arguments of embodied theories of cognition, it would be no surprise to see the involvement of similar areas of the brain in understanding emotions and motions.

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Abstract

The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI) explains the underlying reasons, i.e. risk factors, for the development of criminal social identity (CSI). Empirical research surrounding these risk factors is inconsistent in the measures and procedures used and the risk factors were mostly considered in isolation from one another. The main purpose of the paper was to review existing empirical studies elucidating correlates of CSI incorporated in the IPM-CSI and indicate further direction for research. A search in PubMed, PsychInfo, ERIC, Google Scholar, and the journal Child Development and Adolescent Studies was performed. Eleven studies exploring the correlates of CSI were identified and discussed herein. Studies indicated that there is potential for further expansion of the IPM-CSI to consider the consequences of CSI. Based on the present study results, a set of recommendations are provided for future research.

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Abstract

B a c k g ro u n d: Arterial hypertension (HTN) ranks among the most widespread chronic illnesses that affect adults in industrialized societies. The main goal of this study was to describe the control (inhibition) processes among HTN patients, and to evaluate the dynamics of brain activity while the patients were engaged in tasks measuring the cognitive aspect of self-control.

P a r t i c i p a n t s a n d p ro c e d u re: A set of neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test, Color Trails Test, The Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test), and a fMRI Stroop test (rapid event design) were administered to 40 persons (20 HTN patients and 20 controls). Groups were matched in terms of age, sex, education, smoking history, and waist-to-hip ratio.

R e s u l t s: As revealed by fMRI, the HTN patients demonstrate left-hemisphere asymmetry in inhibitory processes. Also around 90% of patients had problems when completing tasks which rely on verbal and graphomotor aspects of self-control.

C o n c l u s i o n s: The results suggest that both cerebral hemispheres must interact correctly in order to provide successful executive control. The deficiencies in control and executive functioning, which were observed among the patients, prove that HTN negatively affects brain processes that control one’s cognitive activity.

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Abstract

There is a growing body of research investigating the relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, and subjective well-being. However, there remains a scarcity of research examining the impact of self-esteem on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being within Arabic context. In this study, 300 Arabic speaking adults completed measurements of gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive and negative experiences. Participants’ ages ranged between 18 and 54 years with a mean age of 29.67 years (SD = 8.91). The correlation results revealed that there were significant positive relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and positive experience, while there were significant negative relationships between gratitude, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and negative experience. The results also showed that gratitude and self-esteem directly predicted subjective well-being. Additionally, using structural equation modeling, self-esteem exerted a mediation effect on the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being. The results suggest that enhancing self-esteem could assist adults who have gratitude to experience greater subjective well-being. Using the source of self-esteem, researchers and professionals could improve one’s subjective wellbeing by employing various gratitude activities.

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Abstract

The present study aimed to test how common workaholism is and which groups are most targeted in the workplace among Jordanian employees. Additionally, the roles of positive and negative perfectionism in workaholism were investigated. The sample consisted of 686 employees. All of them completed the study instruments. The results showed that the mean of workaholism was around the mean of the cut -off. Additionally, multivariate tests showed that the results of post hoc differences for positive perfectionism were in favor of males, subordinates, those with a bachelor’s degree, those with less than 5 years of experience, and those aged less than 30 years. Furthermore, the differences for negative perfectionism were in favor of those with a bachelor’s degree and subordinates. For workaholism, the differences were in favor of subordinates, public sector employees, married persons, and those with a diploma degree. Finally, the results of hierarchical regression analysis found that positive and negative perfectionism and some demographic variables predicted 12.9% of the variability in workaholism, and the typical hierarchical regression model included positive and negative perfectionism without other demographic variables.

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Abstract

Research suggests that placebo can reduce the misinformation effect. We aimed to examine for the first time whether placebo administered in the guise of caffeine can reduce the misinformation effect. One hundred and twenty -three healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups in a 2 Placebo (Present, Not Present) × 2 Narrative (Misleading, Correct) study design. Participants from placebo groups drank 100 ml of placebo solution. They were told that it was water mixed with caffeine which could positively influence their memory. After three minutes, they watched a short movie clip as an original event and read a narrative with misleading details or correct details as a postevent information; they then completed a 22 -item, two -alternative forced -choice questionnaire. The results reveal that the misinformation effect occurred. Although participants in the placebo with misinformation group scored better than participants who did not drink placebo and read the narrative containing misleading details, the difference was not statistically significant. Thus, it is concluded that placebo might not be enough to reduce the misinformation effect when it is administered in the guise of caffeine.

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Abstract

According to the most popular conceptualization of materialism by Richins and Dawson it consists of three components: acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and possession -defined success. They are usually combined and an overall indicator of materialism is used commonly in various studies. In the article the three components are examined separately. Differences in their nature are revealed in a theoretical analysis, whereas in two empirical studies the ways they connect with well -being are presented. The results show that the overall materialism explains much less variance of well -being than the three components taken separately. Of the three the possession-defined happiness is the most detrimental to all aspects of well -being. The possession -defined success does not connect with well -being at all. Finally, acquisition centrality elevates hedonic and psychological well -being. The conclusion is that the modest effect of materialism on well -being, usually identified in various studies, is probably at least partly due to conflicting forces existing within the construct.

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of Level -1/Level -2 visual perspective -taking (VPT -1/VPT -2) with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). Seventy -six adults aged 18 to 48 years participated in the study. To compare the relationships of the two levels of perspective -taking with the aforementioned abilities, the same stimuli were used in both Level -1 and Level -2 trials of the VPT task. ToM abilities were evaluated with the Strange Story task, and EF using the TMT and WCST tests. It was found that controlling for age -related differences, VPT -1 was not associated with either ToM or such components of EF as executive control and set -shifting. VPT -2 was positively related to ToM, but it was not related to EF. The relationship between VPT -2 and ToM was specific, not mediated by domain -general processing capabilities. The obtained results provide further evidence to support the view that distinct mechanisms underlie Level -1 and Level -2 perspective -taking.

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Abstract

There is a general agreement that remembering depends not only on the memory processes as such but rather that encoding, storage and retrieval are under the constant influence of the overarching, metacognitive processes. Moreover, many interventions designed to improve memory refer in fact to metacognition. Most attempts to integrate the very different theoretical and experimental approaches in this domain focus on encoding, whereas there is relatively little integration of approaches that focus on retrieval. Therefore, we reviewed the studies that used new ideas to improve memory retrieval due to a “metacognitive intervention”. We concluded that whereas single experimental manipulations were not likely to increase metacognitive ability, more extensive interventions were. We proposed possible theoretical perspectives, namely the Source Monitoring Framework, as a means to integrate the two, so far separate, ways of thinking about the role of metacognition in retrieval: the model of strategic regulation of memory, and the research on appraisals in autobiographical memory. We identified venues for future research which could address, among other issues, integration of these perspectives.

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Abstract

Since psychology emerged as an independent field of knowledge, there has been no consensus as to how it should develop, either, in the idiographic or nomothetic way. In the course of time, due to a commitment to what was seen as objectivity in science, the nomothetic approach came to dominate psychology. Thus, researchers used mostly quantitative psychometric methods to establish general rules of human behaviour. In doing so, the essence of nomothetic research is to be extremely careful when interpreting results not to make a reasoning mistake such as the ecological fallacy, as may happen when a researcher draws conclusions about nature of the individual in the group based on average results of the whole group. In the article, we presented two methods for longitudinal research designs which address this problem, and give more idiographic information about participants; via the Reliable Change Index and the Modified Brinley Plot. Finally, we provide a IBM SPSS Statistics syntax automatizing the whole process of computation for these new features.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief:
Dariusz Doliński, Committee for Psychological of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
 

Managing Editor:
Michal Grycz


Editorial Advisory Board:
Albert Bandura, USA
Jerzy Brzeziński, Poland
Daniel Cervone, USA
Janusz Czapiński, Poland
David Funder, USA
Gary Greenberg, USA
Hubert Hermans, Netherlands
Robert House, USA
Arthur Jago, USA
Krzysztof Kaniasty, USA
Ida Kurcz, Poland
Aleksandra Luszczynska, Poland
Tomasz Maruszewski, Poland
Jerzy Mączyński, Poland
Robert McCrae, USA
Stephen Motovidlo, USA
Dennis O’Keefee, United Kingdom
Zofia Ratajczak, Poland
Rolf Reber, Norway
Helena Sęk, Poland
Peter Smith, United Kingdom
Wilhelmina Wosinska, USA
Zbigniew Zaleski, Poland


Honorary Editorial Board:
Alois Angleitner, Germany
John Benjafield, Canada
Gian Caprara, Italy
Joseph Danks, USA
Anthony Greenwald, USA
Robert Hinde, United Kingdom
Friedhart Klix, Germany
Arie Kruglanski, USA
Richard Nisbett, USA
Guido Peeters, Belgium
Jane Allyn Pillliavin, USA
John Rijsman, Netherlands
Paul Slovic, USA
Wolfgang Stroebe, Germany
Velina Topalova, Bulgaria
Boris Velichovsky, Russia
John von Right, Finland

 
Language Editors:
Marlena Johnson, Poland

Contact

Polish Psychological Bulletin
SWPS Wrocław
ul. Ostrowskiego 30B
53-238 Wrocław
Tel: 71 7507214

e-mail: ppb@swps.edu.pl

Instructions for authors

Instrukcja dla autorów

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are encouraged to submit papers electronically via our Editorial System: http://www.editorialsystem.com/ppb

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Type: (a) title page, (b) abstract and up to six keywords, (c) text, (d) references, (e) footnotes, (f) figures, and (g) tables on separate pages in order. Abstract should be no more than 1200 characters and spaces (which is approximately 160 words).

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. Masked reviews are optional. Authors requesting a masked review should write it in the cover letter that they want a double-blind review, and they should remove all author names, institutions, and other identifying information from the manuscript.

Editorial Policy

Polish Psychological Bulletin is an official journal of Polish Academy of Science, Committee for Psychological Science. Each issue is devoted to a specific field or theme in psychology. Papers which do not fit the issue field are published in the Other Papers section.

Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources. Submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review and may be returned to authors for revision. All papers are reviewed with respect to their scholarly merit. Masked reviews are optional, and authors who wish masked reviews must specifically request them when they submit their manuscripts. Only articles written in English will be considered. It is recommended that authors who are not native speakers have their papers checked by native-speaker colleague before submission.

Journal policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for consideration by another journal and does not allow publication of a manuscript that has been published in whole or in part by another journal. Authors must also verify compliance with APA ethical standards in the treatment of participants, human or animal.

The author agrees, upon acceptance of the article for publication, to transfer to Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the article and its content. These rights are transferred for the duration of copyright as defined by international low. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and the journal, to the widest possible readership. Authors may of course, use the material elsewhere after publication providing that prior permission is obtained from Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee for Psychological Sciences.

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