Nauki Humanistyczne i Społeczne

Studia KPZK

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Studia KPZK | 2018 | tom 187 Piękno i energia: współczesny model budowania dzielnic mieszkaniowych w Europie |

Abstrakt

The article is an introduction to the monographic content of a volume containing articles dedicated to contemporary models of building residential districts in Europe, where the issue of an attractive, beautiful architectural form must integrate the dimension of energy efficiency. Individualism must be subject to flexible regulations so that the current understanding of the concept of spatial order brings with it commonly desirable qualities as an effective strategy against the processes of the city›s sprawl. Attached is the output of the HOPU-S URBACT II project (2007-2013), which became an inspiration for the topic.

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The article undertakes quastion of urban design in a context of urban sprawl linking it to the German debate on suburbanisation, conducted under the slogan of Zwischenstadt – a concept created by Th. Sieverts in 1997. The Ladenburger Kolleg „Zwischenstadt” (LKZ) developed 2002-2006 the interdisciplinary research titled: „Amidst the Edge: Zwischenstadt – towards the qualification of the urbanised landscape” The spatial effects of the dispersion processes were considered to be the manifestation of the creation of a new model of the city. The traditional image of urbanism does not fit its logic. Zwischenstadt (in-beetwen-city) recognized as a phase of the urbanization process, uncoordinated by any imposed urban vision, requires a innovative urban design leitmotives. This new planning tool is necessary to obtain the parameters needed to strengthen internal socio-economic development capabilities. The concept of the efficiency of urban design covered the issue of the character of a city›s image. The morphological studies on a megalopolis structure by Frankfurt a. Main, made a creative use of the Lynch research on the image of the city. Their main goal was to understand the characteristics of the dispersion meant as an urbanized landscape and to determine its susceptibility to the process of improving spatial quality – recognition of the endogenous potentials of generating a Zwischenstadt image.

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The article refers to the urban sprawl in Poland. Its objectives are: (1) analysis of relations between negative eff ects, (2) presentation negative effects on transport and energy consumption and on spatial order, (3) analysis of ways of counteracting negative processes including conditions (especially restrictions) on the use of this ways and their effectiveness. The methods used were: observation, literature analysis and logical analysis. Driving forces are heading towards further suburbanization, stopping of which is considered impossible. Orientation of the processes more closely to spatial order is very difficult. There are proper and legal solutions for this, but there are barriers to their use, such as: the lack of awareness and motivation of local authorities and the political conditions that discourage more restrictive regulation.

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The purpose of this article is to present contemporary climatic changes in their actual scale, and to assess their impact on functioning of urban areas situated on the Polish coast. The results of the analysis of variability of hydro-climatic conditions that occurred in the last 65 years (1951-2015) in the area of the Polish coast suggest that important changes were concerning: (1) temperature of the air, and thickness and length of the occurrence of the snow cover, (2) sea surface temperature, and thickness and length of the occurrence of ice cover, (3) sea level rise during storm surges. It was found, however, that the occurrence of catastrophic fl oods from precipitation in the Tri-City area is not the result of climate change, but it is caused by local conditions. The observed increase of air temperatures, and average sea surface temperatures in the Southern Baltic has generally a positive impact on functioning of coastal cities, and does not need any complex adaptation plans to climate changes. Summer is the only period in which the increase of temperature infl uence cities negatively, due to strengthening the urban heat islands. In this case, the architectural solutions, that require large amounts of energy should be eliminated. In urban planning scale, the solutions helping to cool the space in between buildings should be implemented. Sea level rise in the years 2009-2015, caused by storm surges, should be regarded as a signifi cant change in the climate of the Southern Baltic Sea. Taking these changes into account maps of hazard and flood risk, developed in an ISOK project, should be the basis for detailed records in Study of Conditions and Directions of Spatial Development and local development plans of cities, determining the rules and restrictions of the investment and management in the areas at risk of flooding.

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The main objective of the article is an attempt to indicate factors which determine the image of a city as a good place to live as well as to reveal the ways in which they affect the citizens’ quality of life. In order to do so, the author selected the city of Gdynia which is perceived as the best city to live in by its citizens. Among the most important factors determining the quality of life in general there are: the scale of a city, local identity, public spaces, symbolic places, housing environment, perception of a place, personal satisfaction of a place where a particular person lives, urban policies as well as presence and activeness of local leaders. The article presents the results of a social study carried out by the author herself during two periods of time – in 2004 and 2014 as well as the results of the Social Diagnosis 2015.

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In the era of transition to a low-carbon economy, optimal use of the developmental resources within urban regions expresses the need to limit suburbanization and increase the energy efficiency. Solutions are sought as an alternative for the suburban housing estates embodying the image high-quality life in the American Dream style. Aspects of the urban innovation, serving the public sector as a tool for improvement of the quality in residential environment, are considered in the article. Selected examples (mainly German) are described with reference to 1) the changes in the standards of housing development, 2) large-scale renewal programs for residential areas, 3) development and dissemination of urban design (the technique). The interaction between scientific research and the implementation sphere, remaining in the hands of local governments, is important here. Synergy, at a local level, is of key importance in at least four aspects in urban development: 1) solving complex, atypical problems, 2) the public sector being a strong (independent) partner, 3) adaptation of foreign concepts, from other planning systems/cultures and morphologically different urban structures, 4) strengthening the position in relations with the EU.

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This article reflects on the results the use and eff ectiveness of design coding as urban design / development tool, focusing on the roles of and the relationships between the different actors playing parts in the in the design coding process: the administration, the investors, the designers, the politics and the community. It reveals the gap in professional circles that impacts the development process, which, deepened by the continuous battle between the creative, the market-driven and the regulatory modes praxis. The article is polemical in that it points to the three main parties of this collective process, referring to is as the creative, market and regulatory tyranny. The author proposes that design coding, if used correctly, could be an effective tool regulating the essentials of urbanism, leaving room for creativity and enhanced market value. Design coding as such results in improvement of the quality of both urbans space and housing architecture.

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The text comprises the evaluation of relationship between the qualitative planning tools and the Irish housing policy in the pre-crisis period, during the crisis (2009-2013) and the recovery. The tools that affect housing are understood as spatial planning, including governmental regulations on densification of the development and the housing quality as well as the special tools such as the urban design. Those regulatory tools were deployed with aims to safeguard the sustainable and socially viable housing structures. The Irish case illustrates the considerable innovation in introducing new housing standards and challenges with their efficiency. This can be attributed to the lack of integration with other elements that shaped the market – financing and actions of the private market, low efficiency of planning or the lack of the scale effect for the model developments. Despite their drawbacks these tools are continuously being used, as their foundational principles are still valid.

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The article highlights the issues of the quality of the newly developed residential areas in Stockholm, in the times of one of the most development intense times in the history of the city. The city of Stockholm has a population of ca. one million residents today and is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. The high increase in population numbers, high birth rate and strong economy have been the main factors contributing to the rapid city growth. The urgent need for new houses has been addressed by Stockholm’s politicians with an ambitious housing programme. The housing shortage together with the city´s booming economy and actively applied planning policies have created challenges for the decision makers and for the city planners. Most of Stockholm´s new residential areas are being planned outside the city centre which requires a revised approach to the character of the planned spaces and to their density. However, the issues of the quality of the currently planned and built areas are being raised more and more often. Not only the architectural quality has been discussed, but also the scale, structure typologies, the quality of the functional and spatial programmes and that of public spaces.

A planning model that has been applied in Stockholm for several years is based on a close co-operation between the city´s planning administration bodies and private investors. A critical element of this kind of a planning model is a strong vision for the city´s future development. The city’s planning administration bodies assure an applicable guidance throughout the planning process. Analysis and conclusions presented in the article are based on practice at planning and administration bodies in Stockholm and in the region of Stockholm in the years 2005-2018.

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The article describes the design principles, the course of work on the project and the implementation of the Nowe Żerniki district, in the context of the theory of sustainable housing complexes. By comparing the settlement to the Aspern Seestadt, which is considered to be the leading European example of new district development, the author tries to find out, if Nowe Żerniki meets the latest European urban standards and can be called innovative on a European scale. Not only the final shape of the settlement was assessed, but also the design process and functional assumptions of the estate.

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The article concerns problems with shaping contemporary housing estates. By analyzing housing structures designed in recent years, the aim was to demonstrate the importance of creating the continuity of public spaces in order to achieve places seen as attractive and presenting features of high quality urban space. Essential for the research is the question about the conditions which should be fulfi lled when creating the ideal residential place which then leads to a series of answers. These included indicating a good location with functional and aesthetic urban/architectural solutions. Environmental issues are important as well. Regardless of whether it is a multi-family dwelling or a single family house, a good neighborhood and its location in a well-connected place with necessary basic services within walking range are important. It is also signifi cant how the public space was shaped and whether a natural network was created. Due to factors such as the specifi city of the structure’s location in the city and diff erent surfaces of designed estates, as well as the variety of residential buildings being constructed, it is often diffi cult to assess them unambiguously. Importantly, this assessment also includes social and economic aspects as well as technical issues. However, by using multi-directional research it can be noted that the forms of public spaces within housing complexes play an important role in the creation of high-quality structures, perceived as attractive not only by the residents.

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This paper aims to describe how the largest suburban development area for the city of Gdynia has been redesigned according to “New Urbanism” principles to become a new town district for potentially 40,000 inhabitants. Before MAU’s engagement in the project, a comprehensive vision for the area was lacking: new housing developments tended towards its car-dependent sub-urbanisation. The author was charged with organising an urban planning Charrette in May 2012 bringing together developers, city officials, inhabitants and experts in urban design, planning, architecture, traffic, sociology and location marketing. Key to the solution was the necessity of the restructuring of the road network, which had to be redesigned to enable the development of walkable neighborhoods and a distinctive new town center for the district. This would allow to have most daily uses within a 5 minute walking distance, such as schools, shops, recreation areas and public transport. In addition, three different pro-active strategies have been proposed to accommodate workplaces within the district, based on the economic profile and potential of Gdynia. A new Master Plan for the district was accordingly devised, planning procedures were set in motion, and a new legal plan (MPZP) fi nally approved in August 2017.

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The two chosen estates, Garnizon and Wiszace Ogrody have evolved during the last decade or so in Gdańsk. Both developed with the idea of balanced functionality and New Urbanism despite very diff erent locations. The aim was to combine apartment buildings with shops, other services, hotels, offi ce buildings and cultural venues. Numerous interesting and inviting public spaces were also high on the agenda. It was intended to create an interesting, multifunctional space, to maximise the use of the space throughout the day, also making it eco friendly by minimising the use of cars. That`s how an interesting, beautifull space impacts the energy. The centrally located Garnizon has been quite successful, whereas the more peripherally placed Wiszące Ogrody has not quite succeeded due to fi nancial restrictions and is mainly a housing estate at the moment. The hope is that it will grow into a similar entity with new development and helped by the new rail link.

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In the article the question about the issue of beauty and energy in Polish architecture is considered in the context of experience in the design of buildings and housing estates collected in the last twenty years by the Warsaw studio Grupa 5 Architekci. The conceptual, urban and architectural assumptions are illustrated by three examples representative of different, key problem issues.

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Assumptions of the major political and legal documents of the European Union, dedicated to energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings provide the Member States with relevant instruments supporting improvement of the ambient air qualityby dissemination of measures reducing energy demand and promotion of renewable energysources. Mainstreaming EU legislation into national regulations constitutes initial stage of the long term process of supporting implementation of energy efficiency measures. Experience in the improvement of energy performance of the residential buildings revealslimited efficiency of the measures implemented up to date, which results in significantair pollution of Polish cities. The national Action Plans had adopted a limited scope of recommendations included in the EU directives, hence the process meets significant challenges.The article describes adaptation of the relevant EU directives as well as the National Urban Policy in terms of the potential to effectively address faced challenges.

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As a result of introduction of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, all of the EU member states are obliged to introduce legal regulations for energy performance of all newly constructed buildings. The key aim is to achieve close to zero energy use starting from the year 2021. Estimating effectiveness of the actions and the new possibilities requires an analysis of the multiple criteria. They comprise both the current conditions as well as the changes that have occurred in the recent years due to new legislation, the eff ects of the subsidies and the development of the housing stock. This paper presents a broad overview and diagnosis of current situation. The development of the energy-efficient and passive housing in Poland is considered in the context of financial incentives, availability of design knowledge and building technology as well as the role of the green building certification.

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Architecture is a discipline combining aesthetics with technology. This paper is focusing on the relationship between aesthetics and energy efficiency in architecture with special interest in solar collectors and photovoltaic panels as technological equipment of the buildings. The paper takes into consideration the present situation and architectural development in northern Poland, with some input basing on European experiences. The paper defi nes aesthetics and effi ciency in the field of architectural design as well as the use of public and urban spaces. Authors present also some case studies regarding the use of solar panels in selected architectural examples. The paper ends with summary and some conclusions including the need for further research in the field of architectural design, technology and product design, as well as the perception of urbanised spaces and the important field of economic and financial factors connected to the topic.

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The aim of this paper is to discuss energy certification systems and multi-criteria certification schemes – both the assessment tools focusing on the level of the single building and on the urban level. The role of certification systems and the emerging technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption and achieving the high energy quality of the built environment is investigated.

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Redakcja

Rada Redakcyjna
Tadeusz Markowski (przewodniczący), Jacek Szlachta (zastępca przewodniczącego),Paweł Churski, Andrzej Klasik, Tomasz Komornicki, Piotr Lorens, Tadeusz Marszał, Jan Suchacek, Janusz Zaleski, Jacek Zaucha

Redakcja Wydawnictw
Tadeusz Markowski (redaktor naczelny), Paulina Legutko-Kobus (zastępca redaktora naczelnego), Ewa Ryźlak (sekretarz redakcji)

 

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Redakcja Studia KPZK
Pałac Kultury i Nauki, piętro XXIII, pokój 2308
00-901 Warszawa,
tel. (022) 182-68-75,
e-mail: kpzk@pan.pl


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