The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 2

Publication authors


metallography ; cast iron ; aluminium ; Spheroidization ; graphite precipitates

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


The influence of aluminium (added in quantity from about 0.6% to about 2.8%) on both the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron treated with a fixed amounts of cerium mischmetal (0.11%) and ferrosilicon (1.29%) is discussed in the paper. The metallographic examinations were carried out for specimens cut out of the separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. It was found that the addition of aluminium in the amounts from about 0.6% to about 1.1% to the cast iron containing about 3% of carbon, about 3.7% of silicon (after graphitizing modification), and 0.1% of manganese leads to the occurrence of the ferrite-pearlite matrix containing cementite precipitates in the case of the treatment of the alloy with cerium mischmetal . The increase in the quantity of aluminium up to about 1.9% or up to about 2.8% results either in purely ferrite matrix in this first case or in ferrite matrix containing small amounts of pearlite in the latter one. Nodular graphite precipitates occurred only in cast iron containing 1.9% or 2.8% of aluminium, and the greater aluminium content resulted in the higher degree of graphite spheroidization. The noticeable amount of vermicular graphite precipitates accompanied the nodular graphite.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944


G. Bobro, Ju. (1964), Aluminium cast irons. ; Dumitrescu T. (1959), Study of influence of aluminium on microstructure of cast iron with flake or nodular graphite, Rev. Roumaine Metall, 4, 1, 15. ; Piaskowski J. (1974), Nodular cast iron. ; Podrzucki C. (1976), Cast iron metallurgy and casting. ; Podrzucki C. (1991), Cast iron. Structure, properties, applications. ; Hasse S. (1995), Influence of trace elements in nodular cast iron, Giesserei Prax, 15/16, 271. ; Gerockij V. (1976), Influence of aluminium on the structure and properties of nodular cast iron, Litejnoe Proizvodstvo, 6, 4. ; Jonuleit M. (2000), Casting defects in cast iron, null. ; Young S. (1979), Effect of aluminium in cast iron, null. ; Soiński M. (2001), Spheroidizing of low-aluminium silicon-containing cast iron with cerium mischmetal. ; Soiński M. (2006), Investigations concerning production of low-aluminium-chromium cast iron with compact graphite, Archives of Foundry, 6, 18, 2/2, 165. ; Soiński M. (2004), Investigations concerning production of hypoeutectic low-aluminium cast iron with compact graphite, Archives of Foundry, 4, 11, 184. ; Soiński M. (2008), The low-aluminium cast iron of reduced silicon content treated with cerium mischmetal, Archives of Foundry Engineernig, 8, 2, 123. ; Soiński M. (1986), Application of shape measurement of graphite precipitates in cast iron in optimising the spheroidizing process, Acta Stereologica, 5, 2, 311. ; Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 945: Cast iron. Determining of features of graphite precipitates. ; Polish Standard PN-75/H-04661: Grey cast iron, nodular cast iron and malleable. Metallographic examinations. Determining of microstructure.