Thermodynamic Analysis of Cast Irons Solidification With Various Types of Graphite

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 4

Publication authors


Continuous oxygen activity measurement ; Calculation of Gibbs free energy ; Cast iron solidification

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


The contribution summarises the results of oxygen activity determinations, which were measured and registered continuously in castings from cast irons with various types of graphite. The results were used to find the relationship between two variables: natural logarithm of oxygen activities and reverse value of thermodynamic temperature 1 /T. Obtained regression lines were used to calculate oxygen activity at different temperatures, to calculate Gibbs free energy ΔG at the different temperatures and to calculate the single ΔG value for significant temperature of the graphite solidification. The results were processed by a statistical analysis of data files for the different types of graphite with flake, vermicular and spheroidal graphite. Each material has its proper typical oxygen activities range and individual temperature function of Gibbs free energy for analysing and governing casting quality.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944