Granulation of Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Bronze

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 3

Publication authors


Innovative foundry technologies and materials ; Complex aluminium bronze ; Granulation ; Sieve analysis ; Microstructure ; Microhardness

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


With the increase in wall thickness of the casting of iron-nickel-aluminium-bronze, by the reduction of the cooling rate the size of κII phase

precipitates increases. This process, in the case of complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and W is increased. Crystallization

of big κII phase, during slow cooling of the casting, reduces the concentration of additives introduced to the bronze matrix and hardness.

Undertaken research to develop technology of thick-walled products (g> 6 mm) of complex aluminium bronzes. Particular attention

was paid to the metallurgy of granules. As a result, a large cooling speed of the alloy, and also high-speed solidification casting a light

weight of the granules allows: to avoid micro-and macrosegregation, decreasing the particle size, increase the dispersion of phases in

multiphase alloys. Depending on the size granules as possible is to provide finished products with a wall thickness greater than 6 mm by

infiltration of liquid alloy of granules (composites). Preliminary studies was conducted using drip method granulate of CuAl10Fe5Ni5

bronze melted in a INDUTHERM-VC 500 D Vacuum Pressure Casting Machine. This bronze is a starting alloy for the preparation of the

complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo, W and C or Si. Optimizations of granulation process was carried out. As the process

control parameters taken a casting temperature t (°C) and the path h (mm) of free-fall of the metal droplets in the surrounding atmosphere

before it is intensively cooled in a container of water. The granulate was subjected to a sieve analysis. For the objective function was

assume maximize of the product of Um*n, the percentage weight "Um" and the quantity of granules 'n' in the mesh fraction. The maximum

value of the ratio obtained for mesh fraction a sieve with a mesh aperture of 6.3 mm. In the intensively cooled granule of bronze was

identified microstructure composed of phases: β and fine bainite (α+β'+β'1) and a small quantity of small precipitates κII phase. Get high

microhardness bronze at the level of 323±27,9 HV0,1.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944