Selected Principles of Feeding Systems Design: Simulation vs Industrial Experience

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 4

Publication authors


Solidification process ; Castings Defects ; Simulation software ; Feeding flow

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


Simulation software dedicated for design of casting processes is usually tested and calibrated by comparisons of shrinkage defects

distribution predicted by the modelling with that observed in real castings produced in a given foundry. However, a large amount of

expertise obtained from different foundries, including especially made experiments, is available from literature, in the form of

recommendations for design of the rigging systems. This kind of information can be also used for assessment of the simulation predictions.

In the present work two parameters used in the design of feeding systems are considered: feeding ranges in horizontal and vertical plates as

well as efficiency (yield) of feeders of various shapes. The simulation tests were conducted using especially designed steel and aluminium

castings with risers and a commercial FDM based software. It was found that the simulations cannot predict appearance of shrinkage

porosity in horizontal and vertical plates of even cross-sections which would mean, that the feeding ranges are practically unlimited. The

yield of all types of feeders obtained from the simulations appeared to be much higher than that reported in the literature. It can be

concluded that the feeding flow modelling included in the tested software does not reflect phenomena responsible for the feeding processes

in real castings properly. Further tests, with different types of software and more fundamental studies on the feeding process modelling

would be desirable.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944