Characteristics of Graphite Precipitates in Aluminium Cast Iron Treated with Cerium Mixture

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 1

Publication authors


Metallography ; Cast iron ; Aluminium ; Spheroidization ; Graphite precipitates

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


The work determined the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 1% to about 7% on the graphite precipitates in cast iron with

relatively high silicon content (3.4% to 3.90%) and low manganese content (about 0.1%). The cast iron was spheroidized with cerium

mixture and graphitized with ferrosilicon. The performed treatment resulted in occurring of compact graphite precipitates, mainly nodular

and vermicular, of various size. The following parameters were determined: the area percentage occupied by graphite, perimeters of

graphite precipitates per unit area, and the number of graphite precipitates per unit area. The examinations were performed by means of

computer image analyser, taking into account four classes of shape factor. It was found that as the aluminium content in cast iron increases

from about 1.1% to about 3.4%, the number of graphite precipitates rises from about 700 to about 1000 per square mm. For higher

Al content (4.2% to 6.8%) this number falls within the range of 1300 – 1500 precipitates/mm2

. The degree of cast iron spheroidization

increases with an increase in aluminium content within the examined range, though when Al content exceeds about 2.8%, the area

occupied by graphite decreases. The average size of graphite precipitates is equal to 11-15 μm in cast iron containing aluminium in the

quantity from about 1.1% to about 3.4%, and for higher Al content it decreases to about 6 μm.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences


2015[2015.01.01 AD - 2015.12.31 AD]


Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944