The Influence of Technological Parameters of X70 Stainless Steel Ladle Refining on the Residual Content of Non-Metallic Inclusions

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 3

Publication authors


Non-metallic inclusions ; Secondary refining ; Ladle furnace ; Tundish ladle

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


It is demonstrated that during secondary refining at the ladle furnace the carbon content of steel and the residence time of the metal in the

ladle exert a significant impact on the residual content of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) in steel. Mathematical calculations showed that

the dynamic forces have minor effect on the motion of small sized NMI, making it difficult to penetrate deep into the slag.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences


2015[2015.01.01 AD - 2015.12.31 AD]


Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944