Wettability and Surface Free Energy of Ti(C,N) Coatings on Nickel-based Casting Prosthetic Alloys

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 3

Publication authors


Dental alloys ; Wettability ; Contact angle ; Surface tension ; Surface free energ

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


The production process of prosthetic restorations runs in two stages. In the first stage, the prosthetic foundation is produced of metal

alloys. In the second stage, a facing material is applied on the produced element. In both stages, the wettability is significantly important,

as well as the free surface energy relating to it. The quality of the obtained cast depends on the surface phenomena occurring between the

metal alloy and the material of which the casting mould is made. The performed examinations also point to a relation between the ceramics

joint and the base, depending on the wetting angle.

The aim of the presented paper was to examine influence of the composition of a Ti(C,N)-type coating on bases made of the Ni-Cr

prosthetic alloy on the wettability and the surface free energy.

The test material were disks made of the Ni-Cr alloy with the diameter of 8 mm. The disks were divided into five groups, which were

covered with Ti(C,N) coatings, with different amounts of C and N in the layer. In order to determine the surface free energy (����), the

wetting angle was measured. Two measure liquids were applied: distilled water and diiodomethane.

The obtained results of the measurements of the water-wetting angles suggest that together with the increase of the ratio of nitrogen to

carbon in the Ti(C,N) coating, the surface hydrophobicity increases as well. In all the samples, one can see a large difference between the

energy values of the polar and the apolar components. The high values of the polar components and the low values of the apolar ones make

it possible to conclude that these surfaces exhibit a greater affinity to the polar groups than to the apolar ones.

On the basis of the analysis of the surface free energy, one can state that covering the alloy with Ti(C,N)-type coatings should not decrease

the adhesion of the ceramics to the alloy, whereas TiC coatings should lead to the latter’s improvement. Due to their hydrophilicity, TiC

coatings should decrease the adhesion of bacteria to the surface and hinder the formation of a bacterial biofilm.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences


2015[2015.01.01 AD - 2015.12.31 AD]


Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944