The Sources of Surface Defects in Castings Produced in Automated Process Lines

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 4

Publication authors


Surface defects ; Sand mix

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


This study summarises the research efforts undertaken in iron foundry plants in which the process are mostly automated and mechanised.

The research program was limited in scope, focusing on causes of surface defects in castings products that are attributable to the

bentonite-containing sand and the mould system. One of the potential roots of surface defects is heterogeneity of sand grains, containing

lumped ball-shaped grains and irregular pellets with a layered-structure. The moisture contents of those lumped grains is different than

the moisture level required in the process, besides these grains may contain various elements and metallic compounds which, when cast

into moulds, may react with molten metals in an uncontrolled manner. As a result, surface defects are produced, such as surface blowholes,

burst penetration, sand holes, slag inclusions, pinhole porosity. This study investigated the efficiency of key sand preparation and

moulding machines and installations integrated into the casting process line. The efficiency of machines and installations is defined in

terms of quality parameters of sand mix and moulds, which are associated with the emergence of surface defects on castings.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences


2015[2015.01.01 AD - 2015.12.31 AD]


Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944