Tytuł artykułu

Shrinkage Porosity Criterion and Its Application to A 5.5 Ton Steel Ingot

Tytuł czasopisma

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 2

Autorzy publikacji

Słowa kluczowe

Application of information technology to the foundry industry ; Quality management ; Shrinkage porosity ; Ingot solidification ; Numerical simulation

Wydział PAN

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its

threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure

gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary

dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of

numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of

2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m・℃1/2・s

-3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion,

optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated

the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944