The Effect of Carbides Orientation in NC11 Steel on Scratch Susceptibility of Die Inserts Used to Press Stampings for Refractory Shapes

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 2

Publication authors


NC11 steel ; Die insert ; Scratch susceptibility

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


NC11 steel, in view of the specificity of its manufacturing process, is characterised with band-like orientation of carbides. Depending

on the direction of cutting the material for the inserts out of commercially available steel products, carbide bands can be oriented

in parallel or perpendicularly to the direction in which aggregate grains move in the process of pressing stampings. It has been found that

in case of scratches made in direction perpendicular to carbide bands, depth of the scratches is less than this observed when scratches are

made in direction coinciding with prevailing orientation of carbide precipitates.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944