A Multi-Level Robust and Perceptually Transparent Blind Audio Watermarking Scheme Using Wavelets

Journal title

Archives of Acoustics




No 4

Publication authors


digital audio watermarking, robustness, single-level watermarking, multi-level watermarking,payload capacity

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


In this paper, a robust and perceptually transparent single-level and multi-level blind audio watermark- ing scheme using wavelets is proposed. A randomly generated binary sequence is used as a watermark, and wavelet function coding is used to embed the watermark sequence in audio signals. Multi-level wa- termarking is used to enhance payload capacity and can be used for a different level of security. The robustness of the scheme is evaluated by applying different attacks such as filtering, sampling rate al- teration, compression, noise addition, amplitude scaling, and cropping. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed watermarking scheme is resilient to various attacks except cropping. Perceptual transparency of watermark is measured by using Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality (PEAQ) ba- sic model of ITU-R (PEAQ ITU-R BS.1387) on Speech Quality Assessing Material (SQAM) given by European Broadcasting Union (EBU). Average Objective Difference Grade (ODG) measured for this method is −0.067 and −0.080 for single-level and multi-level watermarked audio signals, respectively. In the proposed single-level digital audio watermarking scheme, the payload capacity is increased by 19.05% as compared to the single-level Chirp-Based Digital Audio Watermarking (CB-DAWM) scheme.


Committee on Acoustics PAS, PAS Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Acoustical Society


ISSN 0137-5075 ; eISSN 2300-262X