Archaeometallurgical Investigations of the Early Iron Age Casting Workshop at Kamieniec. A Preliminary Study

Journal title

Archives of Foundry Engineering




No 3

Publication authors


Non-destructive testing ; Investment casting ; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ; Archaeometallurgy ; Lusatian culture

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec

(Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones

giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic

microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental

composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural

impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology.

The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the

energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive Xray

analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF

data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944


Rzadkosz (2015), Refining Processes in the Copper Casting Technology, Metalurgija, 54, 259. ; Rzadkosz (2015), Copper Alloys in Investment Casting Technology, Metalurgija, 54, 293. ; Kolczyk (2013), Rheological properties of ceramic slurries with colloidal binders used in the investment casting technology, Metalurgija, 52, 55. ; Gackowski (2015), Relics of defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture population at Czarnowo ( formerly Kamieniec county in the light of research in site In Archaeologica Pomoranica Szczecin : SNAP ( in Polish, Acta, 38, 67.