Tytuł artykułu

Influence of the Hardener Type on the Hardening Process Kinetics of the Selected Self-setting Sands

Tytuł czasopisma

Archives of Foundry Engineering




vol. 17


No 1

Autorzy publikacji

Słowa kluczowe

Loose self-setting sands ; Hardening kinetics ; Ultrasound investigations

Wydział PAN

Nauki Techniczne


Archives of Foundry Engineering continues the publishing activity started by Foundry Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) in Katowice in 1978. The initiator of it was the first Chairman Professor Dr Eng. Wacław Sakwa – Corresponding Member of PAN, Honorary Doctor of Czestochowa University of Technology and Silesian University of Technology. This periodical first name was „Solidification of Metals and Alloys” , and made possible to publish the results of works achieved in the field of the Basic Problems Research Cooperation. The subject of publications was related to the title of the periodical and concerned widely understand problems of metals and alloys crystallization in a casting mold. In 1978-2000 the 44 issues have been published. Since 2001 the Foundry Commission has had patronage of the annually published “Archives of Foundry” and since 2007 quarterly published “Archives of Foundry Engineering”. Thematic scope includes scientific issues of foundry industry:

  • Theoretical Aspects of Casting Processes,
  • Innovative Foundry Technologies and Materials,
  • Foundry Processes Computer Aiding,
  • Mechanization, Automation and Robotics in Foundry,
  • Transport Systems in Foundry,
  • Castings Quality Management,
  • Environmental Protection.


Measurements of the hardening process of the selected self-setting sands are presented in the hereby paper. Moulding sands were prepared

on the matrix of „Szczakowa” sand of the Sibelco Company. Two resins: phenol-formaldehyde-furfuryl (FF/AF) and urea-formaldehydefurfuryl

(MF/AF) were used for making moulding sands. – Methylbenzene-sulphonic acid was applied as a hardener for the moulding sand

on FF/AF resin, while paratoluene-sulphonic acid for the moulding sand on MF/AF resin. Both hardeners were used in two concentrations:

low – the so-called ‘slow’ hardener and high - ‘fast’ hardener. During investigations, the courses of the hardening process were

determined, more accurately changes of the velocity of the ultrasound wave passage through the moulding sand cL = f(t) and changes of

the moulding sand hardening degree versus time, Sx = f(t). In addition, the kinetics of the hardening process was determined.

Measurements were performed on the research stand for ultrasound investigations.


The Katowice Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences




Artykuły / Articles


ISSN 2299-2944


Zych (2002), The setting kinetic of moulding sands with water glass Metallurgica Slovaca, Acta, 8, 93.