Transformations of mercury in processes of solid fuel combustion – review
Divisions of PAS
ISSN 2083-4772 ; eISSN 2083-4810
Sakulpitakphon (2000), Mercury capture by fl y ash : study of the combustion of a high - mercury coal at a utility boiler, Energy Fuels, 14, 727. ; Pyta (2009), of Ambient Mercury in the Upper Region Water Air Soil Pollution, null, 197. ; Niksa (2001), Kinetic modeling of homogeneous mercury oxidation : the importance of NO and in predicting oxidation in coal - derived systems, Environmental Science Technology, 35, 18. ; Abad (2011), The role of unburned carbon concentrates from fl y ashes in the oxidation and retention of mercury, Chemical Engineering Journal, 174. ; López (2007), Retention of elemental mercury in fl y ashes in different atmospheres, Energy Fuels, 21, 99. ; Branch (2016), United Nations Environment Programme Guidance on Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practices Coal - - fi red power plants and coal - fi red industrial boilers UNEP Chemicals, null. ; Cao (2008), Min Abatement of mercury emissions in the coal combustion process equipped with a Fabric Filter, Fuel, 87. ; Hlawiczka (2003), Partitioning factor of mercury during coal combustion in low capacity domestic heating units of the, Science Total Environment, 312. ; Mardon (2004), Impact of coal properties on coal combustion by - product quality : examples from a Kentucky power plant, International Journal of Coal Geology, 59. ; Nowak (2014), Long - term measurements of atmospheric mercury species deposition in the Silesian Region concept of the mercury deposition coeffi cient of the Environmental Protection, Archives, 40, 43. ; Kolker (2006), Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems, Applied Geochemistry, 21, 1821. ; (2004), Environmental Protection Agency Grant No Final Report : Fundamentals of Mercury Speciation Kinetics Theoretical and Experimental Study University of Arizona, null. ; Pan (2013), Mercury Emission Control from Coal In Cleaner Verlag University, Measurement Combustion Combustion Sustainable World, 29. ; Wang (2007), The role of ammonia on mercury leaching from coal fl y ash, Chemosphere, 69. ; López (2010), of mercury species present during coal combustion by thermal desorption, Analysis Fuel, 89. ; Pacyna (2006), Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in Europe in and their scenarios until of the, Science Total Environment, 370. ; Zhuang (2007), a Impacts of acid gases on mercury oxidation across SCR catalyst Processing, Fuel Technology Journal, 929. ; Bojakowska (2001), Mercury in mineral raw materials exploited in Poland as potential sources of environmental pollution PIG in Polish, null, 394. ; Lee (2006), Pilot - scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in, null. ; Bełdowska (2012), Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Atmospheric Environment, 397. ; Jeon (2008), Heterogeneous mercury reaction on a Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst, Catalysis Letters, 121. ; Chow (1994), Pathways of trace elements in power plants : interim research results and implications Processing, Fuel Technology, 39. ; Lee (2000), Speciation of mercury in the presence of coal and waste combustion fl y ashes Report Triangle Environmental Protection Agency, null, 68. ; Galbreath (2000), Mercury transformations in coal combustion fl ue gas Processing, Fuel Technology, 289. ; Yudovich (2005), Mercury in coal a part Coal use and environmental problems, review International Journal of Coal Geology, 135. ; Sliger (2000), Towards the development of a chemical kinetic model for the homogeneous oxidation of mercury by chlorine species Processing, Fuel Technology, 65, 423. ; Ghorishi (1998), Sorption of mercury species by activated carbons and calcium - based sorbents : effect of temperature mercury concentration and acid gases, Waste Management Research, 16, 582. ; Kolker (2009), Mercury and trace element contents of Donbas coals and associated mine water in the vicinity of Donetsk Ukraine, International Journal of Coal Geology, 83. ; Suárez (2007), Relationship between textural properties fl y ash carbons and Hg capture in fl y ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends, Energy Fuels, 21, 1915. ; Kilgroe (2002), Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal - Fired Electric Utility Boilers : Interim Report Including Errata Data, null, 3. ; Senior (2006), Oxidation of mercury across selective catalytic reduction catalysts in coal - fi red power plants of the Air &, Journal Waste Management Association, 23. ; Agarwal (2007), of a predictive kinetic model for homogeneous Hg oxidation data and Computer Modelling, Development Mathematical, 45, 109. ; Hower (2010), Mercury capture by native fl y ash carbons in coal - fi red power plants in and, Progress Energy Combustion Science, 510. ; Ito (2006), Emissions of mercury and other trace elements from coal - fi red power plants in Japan of the, Science Total Environment, 368. ; (2011), Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal - and Oil - Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil - Fuel - Fired Electric Utility Industrial - Commercial -, null, 85. ; Wichliński (2013), Bis The investigation of mercury contents in polish coal samples of Environmental Protection, Archives, 39, 141. ; Nelson (2007), Atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian point sources, Atmospheric Environment, 1717. ; Romanov (2012), Mercury emissions from the coal - fi red energy generation sector of the Russian Federation, Energy Fuels, 26, 4647. ; Winberg (2004), Evaluation of mercury emissions from coal - fi red facilities with SCR - FGD Systems DOE NETL Mercury Control Technology Program Pittsburgh, Review. ; Hower (2000), Mercury capture by distinct fl y ash carbon forms, Energy Fuels, 14, 224. ; Dunham (2003), Fixed - bed studies of the interactions between mercury and coal combustion fl y ash Processing, Fuel Technology, 197. ; Li (2003), study on the reaction mechanism and kinetic of mercury oxidation by chlorine species of Molecular Structure, Journal THEOCHEM, 625. ; Pavlish (2003), Status review of mercury control options for coal - fi red power plants Process Technology, Fuel, 89. ; Rizeq (1994), Seeker Predictions of metals emissions and partitioning in coal - fi red combustion systems Processing, Fuel Technology, 39. ; Ghorishi (1998), Fundamentals of Mercury Speciation and Control in Coal - Fired Boilers EPA Report number EPA, null, 600. ; Park (2002), Environmental Protection Agency Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal - Fired Electric Utility Boilers : Interim Report Including Errata Dated Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division National Risk Management Research Laboratory Office of Research, null, 3. ; Meij (2002), The fate and behavior of mercury in coal - fi red power plants of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 912. ; Cauch (2008), Environmental Science Technology, 2594. ; Maroto (2005), Effect of porous structure and surface functionality on the mercury capacity of a fl y ash carbon and its activated sample, Fuel, 105. ; Laudal (2000), Effects of fl ue gas constituents on mercury speciation Processing, Fuel Technology, 65, 157. ; Niksa (2005), predictive mechanism for mercury oxidation selective catalytic reduction catalysts under coal - derived fl ue gas of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 1866. ; Jones (1994), Consensus on air toxics eludes industry to date, Power, 138. ; Laumb (2004), ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of mercury sorbent surface chemistry Processing, Fuel Technology, 6, 85. ; Dajnak (2003), The prediction of mercury retention in ash from pulverised combustion of coal and sewage sludge, Fuel, 1901. ; Gibb (2000), The fate of coal mercury during combustion Processing, Fuel Technology, 365. ; Nowak (2013), Comparison of two different analytical procedures for determination of total mercury in wet deposition samples Environmental Protection, Engineering, 39, 75. ; Park (2008), Emission and speciation of mercury from various combustion sources, Powder Technology, 180. ; Liu (2001), Study of mercury removal in FBC systems fi red with high - chlorine coals Technology, Combustion Science, 164. ; Strege (2008), deactivation in a full - scale cofi red utility boiler, Fuel, 87. ; Abad (2011), uence of iron species present in fl y ashes on mercury retention and oxidation, Fuel, 2808. ; Jang (2014), Mercury emission characteristics from coal combustion by supplying oxygen and carbon dioxide with limestone injection Processing, Fuel Technology, 125. ; Procaccini (2000), Presence of chlorine radicals and formation of molecular chlorine in the post - fl ame region of chlorocarbon combustion, Environmental Science Technology, 34, 21. ; Suárez (2007), capture and fl y ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants, Energy Fuels, 21, 59. ; (null), Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion fl ue gases of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 643. ; Pirrone (2001), Ambient Air Pollution by Mercury Position Paper ce for Offi cial Publications of the, null. ; Wilcox (2012), Mercury adsorption and oxidation in coal combustion and gasifi cation processes, International Journal of Coal Geology, 90, 4. ; Pacyna (2016), Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale and, Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 16, 12495. ; Leaner (2009), Mercury Emissions from Point Sources in South Africa In Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere eds, null. ; Toole (1999), Mercury concentration in coal - unraveling the puzzle, Fuel, 47. ; Mastalerz (2004), From in - situ coal to fl y ash study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana of Coal, International Journal Geology, 59. ; Park (2006), Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods, Energy Fuels, 20, 2413. ; Wichliński (2014), Bis The release of mercury from polish coals during thermal treatment of fuels in a fl uidized bed reactor Processing, Fuel Technology, 119. ; Tan (2004), An investigation of mercury distribution and speciation during coal combustion, Fuel, 2229. ; Ticknor (2014), robust framework to predict mercury speciation in combustion fl ue gases of, Journal Hazardous Materials, 264. ; Zhang (2012), Infl uence of mercury and chlorine content of coal on mercury emissions from coal - fi red power plants in China Technology, Environmental Science, 46, 11. ; Finkelman (1994), Mode of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal : levels of confi dence Processing, Fuel Technology, 39. ; Nations (2013), United Programme a Global mercury assessment sources emissions releases and environmental transport Chemicals, Environment. ; Yudovich (2005), a Mercury in coal a part, review International Journal of Coal Geology, 1. ; Frandsen (1994), Dam Trace elements from combustion and gasifi cation of coal an equilibrium approach in and, Progress Energy Combustion Science, 115. ; UNEP (2013), United Nations Environment Programme Reducing mercury emissions from coal combustion in the energy sector of the Russian Federation Chemicals, null. ; Senior (2005), Impact of carbon - in - ash on mercury removal across particulate control devices in coal - fi red power plants, Energy Fuels, 19, 859. ; Rubel (2005), Adsorption of on coal by - products, Fuel, 911. ; Norton (2003), Heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in simulated post combustion conditions, Fuel, 107. ; Xu (2003), Modeling of homogeneous mercury speciation using detailed chemical kinetics and, Combustion Flame Journal, 132. ; Galbreath (1996), Mercury speciation in coal combustion and gasifi cation fl ue gases, Environmental Science Technology, 30, 2421. ; Rubel (2006), Thermal stability of mercury captured by ash, Fuel, 85. ; López (2009), The infl uence of carbon particle type in fl y ashes on mercury adsorption, Fuel, 1194. ; Senior (2000), Gasphase transformations of mercury in coal - fi red power plants Processing, Fuel Technology, 197. ; Hall (1991), Chemical reactions of mercury in combustion flue gases Water Air Soil Pollution, null, 3. ; Józewicz (2007), Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal - fi red Power Plants, null. ; Fuente (2012), Retention of mercury by low - - cost sorbents uence of fl ue gas composition and fl y ash occurrence, Chemical Engineering Journal, 213. ; Rallo (2012), Mercury policy and regulations for coal - fi red power plants and, Environmental Science Pollution Research, 1084. ; Widmer (1998), Practical limitation of mercury speciation in simulated municipal waste incinerator fl ue gas and, Combustion Science Technology, 134. ; UNEP (2011), Chemicals United Nations Environment Programme Reducing mercury emissions from coal combustion in the energy sector Chemicals, null. ; Zheng (2007), The distribution occurrence and environmental effect of mercury in Chinese coals of the, Science Total Environment, 384. ; Fujiwara (2002), Mercury transformations in the exhausts from lab - - scale coal fl ames, Fuel, 2045. ; Kabata (1999), of trace elements in Polish, Biogeochemistry. ; Ariya (2002), Reactions of gaseous mercury with atomic and molecular halogens : kinetics product studies and atmospheric implications The of A, Journal Physical Chemistry, 106. ; Galbreath (2004), Effects of NOx α γ HCl on mercury transformations in a kW coal combustion system Processing pp, Fuel Technology, 429. ; Wu (2010), Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a boiler of, Journal Environmental Sciences China, 22, 190. ; Zhao (2006), Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 628. ; Bhardwaj (2009), Impact of fl y ash composition on mercury speciation in simulated fl ue gas of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 59, 11. ; Naruse (2010), Gaseous mercury oxidation behavior in homogeneous reaction with chlorine compounds of and, Mater Journal Material Cycles Waste Management, 12, 154. ; (1997), Environmental Protection Agency Mercury Study Report to Congress https www epa gov mercury mercury studyreport congress, null. ; Zhuang (2007), Impact of calcium chloride addition on mercury transformations and control in coal fl ue gas, Fuel, 2351. ; Hlawiczka (2008), Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in, Environmental Engineering Science, 163. ; Mukherjee (2008), Mercury fl ow via coal and coal utilization by - products global perspective Resources and, Conservation Recycling, 571. ; Olson (2005), Surface compositions of carbon sorbents exposed to simulated low - rank coal fl ue gases of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 747. ; Sloss (2012), Legislation standards and methods for mercury emissions control IEA Clean Coal Centre London, null, 195. ; Tewalt (2010), Chemical analyses in the World Coal Quality Inventory version Geological Survey Open - File Report http pubs usgs gov of, null, 1. ; Baochun (2000), Interactions between vapor - phase mercury compounds and coal char in synthetic fl ue gas Processing, Fuel Technology, 93. ; Gao (2013), critical review on the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in fl ue gases, Environmental Science Technology, 10813. ; Zhuang (2004), of a mercury transformation model in coal combustion fl ue gas, Development Environmental Science Technology, 38, 21. ; Edwards (2001), Study of gas - phase mercury speciation using detailed chemical kinetics of the Air, Journal Waste Management Association, 869. ; Wojnar (2006), Mercury in the Polish energetic in Polish, null, 59.