TitleMorphological and Biochemical Responses to Gibberellic Acid in Magnolia × ‘Spectrum’ in Vitro
Journal titleActa Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica
Divisions of PASNauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze
AbstractAbstract The total soluble sugar content and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied for the first time during axillary shoot formation in Magnolia × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro in response to BAP (0.3 mg l−1), different levels of gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg l−1), sucrose (20 and 30 g l−1) and nitrogen salts (KNO3/NH4NO3; 100/100% and 75/50% relative to MS medium). Among various GA3 and sucrose/nitrogen salts ratios, the most effective axillary multiplication (5.9 shoots/explant) and leaf formation (25.7 leaves per multiplied clumps) were obtained after addition of GA3 at 0.1 mg l−1 to a BAP medium containing 20 g l−1 sucrose and reduced levels of nitrogen salts (75% KNO3 and 50% NH4NO3). The addition of GA3 to the BAP medium enhanced shoot formation by 36% and leaf formation by 27%. The highest shoot formation capacity of M. × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro coincided with enhanced levels of soluble sugar and peroxidase (POD) activity. Increasing GA3 concentration from 0.1 to 1.0 mg l−1 in the above medium resulted in inhibition of shoot and leaf formation and a decrease in the soluble sugar content. The influence of GA3 on the activities of catalase (CAT) and POD depended on its concentration and the levels of sucrose and nitrogen salts in the medium. The highest increase in CAT and POD activities, that coincided with the enhanced shoot formation capacity of M. × ‘Spectrum’ in vitro, was observed after addition of GA3 to the medium containing high levels of sucrose and nitrogen salts.
PublisherBiological Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences – Cracow Branch
IdentifiereISSN 1898-0295 ; ISSN 0001-5296
ReferencesWojtaniaA (2015), Effect of cytokinin , sucrose and nitrogen salts concentrations on the growth and development and phenolics content inMagnolia soulangiana Coates shoots in vitro -, Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14, 51. ; DunEA (2012), Antagonistic action of strigolactone and cytokinin in bud outgrowth control, Plant Physiology, 158. ; ParrisJK (2012), Basal salt composition cytokinins and phenolic binding agents influence in vitro growth and ex vitro establishment ofMagnolia Ann, HortScience, 47, 1625. ; GabryszewskaE (2015), Effect of different sucrose and nitrogen salts levels in the medium and temperature on in vitro propagation ofHelleborus nigerL, Acta Arobotanica, 68, 161, doi.org/10.5586/aa.2015.016 ; IqbalN (2011), Role of gibberellins in regulation of source - sink relations under optimal and limiting environmental conditions, Current Science, 100, 998. ; DuboisM (1956), Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances, Analytical Chemistry, 28, 350, doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017 ; ChenWS (1994), Gibberellin and temperature influence carbohydrate content and flowering inPhalaenopsis, Physiologia Plantarum, 90, 391, doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1994.tb00404.x ; KamenickaA (2000), Effect of medium composition and type of vessel closure on axillary shoot production of magnolia in vitro, Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 22, 129, doi.org/10.1007/s11738-000-0067-5 ; PawłowskaB (2011), The effect of BAP and on the shoot multiplication of in vitro cultures of Polish wild roses, Folia Horticulturae, 23, 145. ; BiedermannIEG (1987), Factors affecting establishment and development of magnolia hybrids in vitro, Acta Horticulturae, 212. ; ChaeWS (2006), Sugars hormones and environment affect the dormancy status in underground buds of leafy spurge ( Euphorbia esula ), Weed Science, 54, 59, doi.org/10.1614/WS-05-088R.1 ; MýtinováZ (2011), Antioxidant enzymatic protection during tobacco leaf ageing is affected by cytokinin depletion, Plant Growth Regulation, 65, 23, doi.org/10.1007/s10725-011-9571-4 ; DodsworthSA (2009), A diverse and intricate signaling network regulates stem cell fate in the shoot apical meristem, Developmental Biology, 336. ; LiQ (2011), Gibberellin pretreatment incresed antioxidative capacity of cucumber radicles and hypocotyls under suboptimal temperature, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 4091. ; ZhangX (2008), Effects of gibberellins on in vitro shoot bud regeneration ofArabidopsis, African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 4159. ; FraguasCB (2004), Micropropagation of fig ( Ficus caricaL ) Roxo de Valinhos plants In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology, Plant, 40, 471. ; BerettaD (1987), Determination of optimal level of BAP and IAA in micropropagation ofCamelliaby an orthogonal composite design, Acta Horticulturae, 212. ; BarbierFF (2015), Ready steady go ! A sugar hit starts the race to shoot branching, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 25, 39, doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2015.04.004 ; WojtaniaA (2011), The effect of growth regulators and sucrose concentration on in vitro propagation ofCamellia japonicaL, Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 11, 177. ; TangW (2005), Peroxidase and catalase activities are involved in direct adventitious shoot formation induced by thidiazuron in eastern white pine ( Pinus strobusL ) zygotic embryos, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43, 760, doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.05.008 ; SokolovRS (2014), Physiological response of in vitro culturedMagnoliasp to nutrient medium composition, Journal of Horticultural Research, 22, 49. ; TunaAL (2008), The combined effects od gibberellic acid and salinity on same antioxidant enzyme activities , plant growth parameters and nutritional status in maize plants, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 62, 1, doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.06.007 ; GibsonSI (2003), Sugar and phytohormone response pathways : navigating a signaling network, Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 253, doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erh048 ; PerataP (1997), Sugar repression of a gibberellin - dependent signaling pathway in barley embryos, Plant Cell, 9, 2197, doi.org/10.1105/tpc.9.12.2197 ; Khavari (2013), The effects of application on growth , lipid peroxidation , antioxidant enzymes activities , and sugars levels of cadmium stressed tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentumMill Cv CH ) plants, Romanian Journal of Biology Plant Biology, 58, 51. ; SahooY (1998), Micropropagation ofVitex negundoL a woody aromatic medicinal shrub , through high - frequency axillary shoot proliferation, Plant Cell Reports, 18, 301, doi.org/10.1007/s002990050576 ; GabryszewskaE (2011), Effect of various levels of sucrose , nitrogen salts and temperature on the growth and development ofSyringa vulgarisL shoots in vitro Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant, Research, 19, 133. ; CandauR (1992), Regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis inGibberella fujikuroi, Plant Physiology, 100, 1184, doi.org/10.1104/pp.100.3.1184 ; MurashigeT (1962), A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures, Physiologia Plantarum, 15, 473, doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x ; SujathaM (1998), Differential cytokinin effects on the stimulation of in vitro shoot proliferation from meristematic explants of castor ( Ricinus communisL ), Plant Cell Reports, 17, 561, doi.org/10.1007/s002990050442 ; WojtaniaA (2014), Effects of cytokinins on antioxidant enzymes in in vitro grown shoots ofPelargonium hortorumL Bayley, Acta Agrobotanica, 67, 33, doi.org/10.5586/aa.2014.042 ; HorvathDP (2002), Molecular analysis of signals controlling dormancy and growth in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge ( Euphorbia esulaL ), Plant Physiology, 128, 1439, doi.org/10.1104/pp.010885 ; MitrovićA (2012), Changes in antioxidative enzymes activities duringTacitus bellusdirect shoot organogenesis, Biologia Plantarum, 56, 357, doi.org/10.1007/s10535-012-0098-y ; AebiH (1984), Catalase in vitro, Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121, doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(84)05016-3 ; ChakrabartiN (2003), Alleviation of NaCl stress by pretreatment of phytohormones inVigna radiata, Biologia Plantarum, 46, 589, doi.org/10.1023/A:1024827931134 ; ChoubaneD (2012), Photocontrol of bud burst involves gibberellins biosynthesis inRosasp, Journal of Plant Physiology, 169.