Tytuł artykułu

Low Genetic Diversity of Declining Viola uliginosa (Violaceae) at its Southern Range Limits in Poland

Tytuł czasopisma

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica




No 2

Autorzy publikacji

Wydział PAN

Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze


<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p><jats:italic>Viola uliginosa</jats:italic> (bog violet) is a declining species throughout its range due to – mostly anthropogenic – drying out of the wet habitats it occupies. Using AFLP markers, we aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in Polish populations, that may give an insight into the situation of plant populations facing rapid loss of natural habitats.</jats:p> <jats:p>Bog violet from several dispersed Polish populations is generally characterized by very low genetic diversity (<jats:italic>H</jats:italic><jats:sub>T</jats:sub> = 0.048), even lower than several other endangered violets; therefore, we suggest that it should preserve at least EN rank in the red lists/red data books. The mean gene diversity within all populations (<jats:italic>H</jats:italic><jats:sub>S</jats:sub>) was much lower than gene diversity (<jats:italic>G</jats:italic><jats:sub>ST</jats:sub>) between populations (0.020 versus 0.583, respectively) which supports the prevalence of clonal propagation of the species (mainly by stolons) but may also point to some significance of autogamy in cleisto- and chasmogamous flowers. A high <jats:italic>F</jats:italic><jats:sub>ST</jats:sub> value and the Mantel test for all populations revealed significant isolation by distance. Geographically neighboring pairs of populations formed genetic clusters supported by all (in the case of two closest populations) or most statistical analyses applied. Special attention should be paid to the <jats:italic>locus classicus</jats:italic> of the species in Rząska, consisting of a small number of individuals, forming a genetically distinct group, revealing very low gene diversity (<jats:italic>H</jats:italic><jats:sub>j</jats:sub> = 0.009) and the longest genetic distance to the remaining populations. Our results can contribute to planning future protection measures for the species at this and other locations. Genetic structure of the studied populations suggests local affinities of populations but does not generally support hypothesized recent continuity of <jats:italic>V. uliginosa</jats:italic> range along the river valleys of southern Poland; this view may, however, be altered with widening of the scope of studied populations and chosen molecular markers.</jats:p>


Biological Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences – Cracow Branch




eISSN 1898-0295 ; ISSN 0001-5296


BergH (1999), Offspring performance in three cleistogamousViolaspecies, Plant Ecology, 145, 49, ; EhrichD (2006), AFLPdat : a collection of R functions for convenient handling of AFLP data, Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, 603, ; CulleyTM (2012), Genetic structure and out - crossing rates inViola pedunculata a California endemic violet lacking cleistogamous flowers, Madroño, 59, 181, ; KopelmanNM (2015), Clumpak : A program for identifying clustering modes and packaging population structure inferences across K, Molecular Ecology Resources, 15, 1179, ; MałobęckiA (2016), Cleistogamy and phylogenetic position ofViola uliginosa re - examined the, Botanical Journal of Linnean Society, 182, 180, ; EcksteinRL (2006), Biological Flora of Central Europe : Viola elatior pumilaandV stagnina Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and, Systematics, 8, 45. ; EvannoG (2005), Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE : a simulation study, Molecular Ecology, 14, 2611, ; GómezJM (2015), The silent extinction : climate change and the potential hybridization - mediated extinction of endemic high - mountain plants, Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 1843, ; EcksteinRL (2005), Effects of cleistogamy and pollen source on seed production and offspring performance in three endangered violets, Basic and Applied Ecology, 6, 339, ; MarcussenT (2015), From gene trees to a dated allopolyploid network : insights from the angiosperm genusViola, Systematic Biology, 64, 84, ; AugeH (2001), Demographic and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses reveal high levels of genetic diversity in a clonal violet, Molecular Ecology, 10, 1811, ; CulverDC (1980), The fate ofViolaseeds dispersed by ants, American Journal of Botany, 67, 710, ; CieślakE (2006), Low genetic diversity in the endangered population ofViola uliginosain its locus classicus at Rząska near Cracow ( Southern Poland ) as revealed by AFLP markers, Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 75, 245, ; BöhmC (2003), Distribution biology and ecology ofViola uliginosaBess in Germany, Tuexenia, 23, 163. ; SlazakB (2015), a Exogenous plant hormones and cyclotide expression inViola uliginosa, Phytochemistry, 117, 527, ; PritchardJK (2000), Association mapping in structured populations, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 170, ; MarcussenT (2010), Violaceae In eds The Bergius Foundation Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Stockholm, Flora, 6. ; NeiM (1973), Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations Proceedings of the National Academy of, Sciences, 70, 3321. ; FalushD (2007), Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data : dominant markers and null alleles, Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 574, ; Cortes (2006), Population genetic structure in temperate and tropical species ofViola with a mixed breeding system, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167. ; KutaE (1978), Cyto - embriological studies on the species of theViolaL genus NominiumGing section from the territory of Poland Fragmenta Floristica et in Polish with English summary, Geobotanica, 24, 23. ; BuldriniF (2013), Genetic diversity of the rare and endangered meadow violet ( Viola pumilaChaix ) at the southern margin of its range, Plant Biosystems, 147, 1. ; NikitinV (1998), The system of the genusViola of Eastern European and Caucasian flora Botanicheskii Zhurnal St in Russian, Petersburg, 83, 123. ; NeiM (1979), Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases Proceedings of the National Academy of, Sciences, 76, 5269. ; HusonDH (2006), Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23, 254, ; NybomH (2000), Effects of life history traits and sampling strategies on genetic diversity estimates obtained with RAPD markers in plants Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and, Systematics, 3, 93. ; KupfferKR (1903), Beschreibung dreier neuer Bastarde vonViola uliginosanebst Beiträgen zur Systematik der Veilchen Österreichische Botanische, Zeitschrift, 53, 141. ; VosP (1995), van deLeeT AFLP : a new technique for DNA fingerprinting, Nucleic Acids Research, 23, 4407, ; NybomH (2004), Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants, Molecular Ecology, 13, 1143, ; MatulevičiūtėD (2015), Notes on the status ofViola uliginosain Lithuania, Botanica Lithuanica, 21, 64. ; BizouxJ (2008), Fitness and genetic variation ofViola calaminaria an endemic metallophyte : implications of population structure and history, Plant Biology, 10, 684, ; EarlDA (2012), STRUCTURE HARVESTER : A website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method, Conservation Genetics Resources, 4, 359, ; ZabłockiJ (1947), Rodzina : Violaceae Fiołkowate In ed Flora Polska Rośliny Naczyniowe Polski i Ziem Polska Akademia Umiejętności in Polish, Ościennych, 6, 1. ; SlazakB (2015), b Micropropagation ofViola uliginosa for endangered species conservation and for somaclonal variation - enhanced cyclotide biosynthesis, Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 120, 179, ; SlatkinM (1989), A comparison of three indirect methods for estimating average levels of gene flow, Evolution, 43, 1349, ; RonikierM (2008), High genetic differentiation in the alpine plantCampanula alpinaJacq : Evidence for glacial survival in several Carpathian regions and long - term isolation between the Carpathians and the Alps, Molecular Ecology, 17, 1763, ; KrawczykR (2008), IsViola uliginosacritically endangered in Poland ? New data on the distribution of the species, Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 77, 345, ; CieślakE (2004), Specimen - rich station ofViola uliginosa in the Kotlina Sandomierska basin Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica in Polish with English summary, Polonica, 11, 206. ; CulleyTM (2001), Population genetic structure of the cleistogamous plant speciesViola pubescensAiton as indicated by allozyme and ISSR molecular markers, Heredity, 86, 545, ; AgapowP (2001), Indices of multilocus linkage disequilibrium, Molecular Ecology Notes, 1, 101, ; SłomkaA (2011), Increased genetic diversity ofViola tricolorL in metal - polluted environments, Chemosphere, 83, 435, ; KutaE (2014), Morphologicalversusgenetic diversity ofViola reichenbachianaandV riviniana ( sect Viola from soils differing in heavy metal content, Plant Biology, 16, 924, ; HiraiM (2012), Genetic diversity of the endangered coastal violetViola grayiFranchet et Savatier and its genetic relationship to the species in subsectionRostratae, Conservation Genetics, 13, 837, ; WolfDE (2001), Predicting the risk of extinction through hybridization, Conservation Biology, 15, 1039, ; ReischCh (2014), The impact of study design and life history traits on genetic variation of plants determined with AFLPs, Plant Ecology, 215, 1493, ; SchlüterPM (2006), Analysis of multilocus fingerprinting data sets containing missing data, Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, 569, ; CánovasJL (2015), Genetic diversity ofViola cazorlensisGand , an endemic species of Mediterranean dolomitic habitats : implications for conservation, Systematics and Biodiversity, 13, 571, ; BrownAHD (1980), Multilocus structure of natural populations ofHordeum spontaneum, Genetics, 96, 523. ; ValentineDH (1968), ViolaL In NA eds Cambridge University Press, Flora, 2, 270. ; EckertCG (2008), Genetic variation across species geographical ranges : the central marginal hypothesis and beyond, Molecular Ecology, 17, 1170,