Effect of Fluridone on Some Physiological and Qualitative Features of Ripening Tomato Fruit
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p> In tomato fruits, chlorophyll, lycopene and ß-carotene are mostly responsible for the color. During ripening of tomato fruits, the color of the pericarp changes from green to red as chlorophyll is degraded and carotenoids accumulate. These changes are associated with an increase in respiration and ethylene production. Carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants can be disturbed by herbicide fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-trifluoromethyl(phenyl)]- 4(1H)-pyridinone), which inhibits the activity of phytoene desaturase, an enzyme responsible for conversion of phytoene to phytofluene. Fluridone is also used as an inhibitor of biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones, and it reduces chlorophyll production in plants. In our research we studied the effect of fluridone on some physiological parameters, such as color, firmness, ethylene production, lycopene and chlorophyll content during ripening of the tomato fruit. Tomato plants cv. Altadena (Syngenta) were cultivated in a greenhouse in controlled temperature and both immature and mature fruits were used for the experiments, performed between August and November 2016. Fluridone at concentrations of 0.1% and 1.0% in lanolin paste was applied as a 2-3 mm stripe from the top to the base of tomato fruits, and as a control a stripe of lanolin was applied in the same way on the opposite side of the fruits. Fluridone at a concentration of 1.0% greatly inhibited lycopene accumulation in the pericarp of tomato fruits from the treated side. The measurements of fruit firmness have shown no significant differences between firmness of the part of the tomato fruits treated with fluridone, and the non-treated ones. Tomato fruits treated with fluridone produced amounts of ethylene similar to those found in control tissues on the opposite side of the same fruit. Fluridone delayed chlorophyll degradation in tomato fruits. The metabolic significance of these findings is discussed with the role of carotenogenesis inhibition in tomato fruit ripening.</jats:p>
eISSN 1898-0295 ; ISSN 0001-5296
Doong (1993), Effect of fluridone on chlorophyll carotenoids and anthocyanin content of Hydrilla, Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 31. ; ALEXANDER (2002), and action in tomato : a model for climacteric fruit ripening of, biosynthesis Journal Experimental Botany, 53. ; Bramley (2002), Regulation of carotenoids formation during tomato fruit ripening and development of, Journal Experimental Botany, 53. ; Cao (2013), Effects of different harvest maturities and exogenous fluridone and ethephon treatments on fruit ripening of Zhonghuashoutao peach, Acta Alimentaria, 186. ; López (2008), Tomato strigolactones are derived from carotenoids and their biosynthesis is promoted by phosphate starvation, New Phytologist, 178. ; Chen (2000), Da Effects of abscisic acid and fluridone on ripening of apple fruits Phytophysiologica, Acta, 26, 123. ; Hoffman (1980), Changes of aminicyclopropane - carboxylic acid content in ripening fruits in relation to their ethylene production rates of the for, Journal American Society Horticultural Science, 1. ; Meru (1984), Flechter SV Reversal of fluridone - reduced chlorophyll accumulation in cucumber sativus cotyledons by stimulatory compounds, Weed Science, 722. ; Kende (1981), Wound ethylene aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase in ripening tomato fruit, Planta, 1. ; Pirrello (2009), Regulation of tomato fruit ripening CAB, Reviews, 4, 1. ; XU (1995), The role of abscisic acid in germination storage protein synthesis and desiccation tolerance in alfalfa sativa seeds as shown by inhibition of its synthesis by fluridone during development of, Journal Experimental Botany, 687. ; Chen (2016), Mechanism of fluridone - induced seed germination of Cistanche tubulosa of, Pakistan Journal Botany, 971. ; Bruinsma (1963), The quantitative analysis of chlorophyll a and in plant extracts and, Photochemistry Photobiology, 241. ; Giuliano (1993), Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato development, Plant Cell, 379. ; Su (null), Carotenoid accumulation during tomato fruit ripening is modulated by the auxin - ethylene balance, BMC Plant Biology, 15, 2015, doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0495-4 ; Schmitz (2001), AR Dormancy of yellow cedar seeds is terminated by gibberellic acid in combination with fluridone or with osmotic priming and moist chilling and, Seed Science Technology, 29, 331. ; WORARAD (2016), Effects of fluridone treatment on seed germination and dormancy - associated gene expression in an ornamental peach persica The Preview, Horticulture Journal, doi.org/10.2503/hortj.OKD-043 ; Seymour (2013), GB Regulation of ripening and opportunities for control in tomato and other fruits, Plant Biotechnology, 11, 269. ; Berman (null), Nutritionally important carotenoids as consumer products, Phytochemistry Reviews, 14, 2015. ; Saniewski (1983), The effect of methyl jasmonate on lycopene and beta - carotene accumulation in ripening red tomatoes, Experientia, 39. ; Czapski (1995), The effect of methyl jasmonate vapour on some characteristic of fruit ripening carotenoids and tomatine changes in tomato esculentum Mill, Acta Agrobotanica, 48, 27. ; Jamil (2010), inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice of and, Archives Biochemistry Biophysics, 504. ; Marquis (1981), Absorption and translocation of fluridone and glyphosate in submersed vascular plants, Weed Science, 29, 229. ; BARRY (2007), and fruit ripening of synthesis in higher plants and, Journal Plant Growth Regulation Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications, 26, 143. ; YOSHIOKA (1998), Restoration of seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures by fluridone an inhibitor of abscisic acid biosynthesis and, Plant Cell Physiology, 39. ; SU (1984), of aminocyclopropane caboxylic acid synthase and polygalacturonase activities during the maturation and ripening of tomato fruit, Development Hortscience, 19, 1. ; Rasmussen (1997), Wheat kernel dormancy and abscisic acid level following exposure to fluridone of, Journal Plant Physiology, 150. ; Sheng (2008), Spatiotemporal relationships between abscisic acid and ethylene biosynthesis during tomato fruit ripening, Acta Horticulturae, 774. ; Le Page (1992), In situ abscisic acid synthesis requirement for induction of embryo dormancy in Helianthus annuus, Plant Physiology, 1386. ; Popova (1998), LP and light - affected chloroplast ultrastructure and ABA accumulation in droughtstressed barley and, Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 313. ; Quantrano (1997), Pages New insight into mediated processes, Plant Cell, 470. ; Drexler (1981), DM Flechter Inhibition of photosynthetic pigments in cucumber cotyledons as a principle for a bioassay with fluridone, Weed Research, 21. ; Moore (1984), graviresponsiveness and abscisic - acid content of Zea mays seedlings treated with fluridone Ethylene and fruit ripening In MT ed Annual Plant The Plant Hormone Ethylene, Growth Planta Reviews, 162. ; Berard (1978), Absorption translocation and metabolism of fluridone in selected crop species, Weed Science, 26, 252. ; Jullien (2000), Abscisic acid control of seed dormancy expression in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana In eds Dormancy in Plants CAB International, null, 195. ; YAMAZAKI (1999), Involvement of abscisic acid in bulb dormancy of Allium wakegi Endogenous level of ABA in relation to bulb dormancy and effects of exogenous ABA and fluridone Plant Growth Regulators, null, 29, 189. ; ZHANG (2009), The role of ABA in triggering ethylene biosynthesis and ripening of tomato fruit of, Journal Experimental Botany, 1579.