The Use of 3D Scanning Methods to Evaluate the Hybrid Layer Used in Forging Tools in Order to Improve their Durability

Journal title

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials




No 3


Metals and Alloys

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne


<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>This study is focused on tools used in the industrial process of hot forging of a front wheel forging (gear wheel) manufactured for the automotive industry. Five different variants were applied for the tools: 3 die inserts were coated with three different hybrid layers (PN + PVD type), i.e. AlCrTiN, AlCrTiSiN and CrN, one insert was only nitrided, and one was pad welded, to improve tool durability. The tool wear was analysed and represented by the material degradation on the working surface, based on the 3D scanning and the material growth of the periodically collected forgings. Additionally, the scanned tools were divided into two areas, in which it was found, based on the analysis, that various degradation mechanisms are predominant. Microstructural tests and hardness measurements of the analyzed tools were also performed. Based on the results, it was found that, in the central part of the die insert, thermo-mechanical fatigue, abrasive wear and plastic deformation occurred, while in the area of the bridge insert, only abrasive wear could be observed. For these areas, the loss of material was determined separately. It was established that the use of the GN+CrN and GN+AlCrTiN hybrid layers on forging tools improves their durability, while the best results in the central area were observed on the tool with the GN+CrN layer, which is the most resistant to thermo-mechanical fatigue. In the second analyzed area, good wear resistance occurred on GN+CrN, GN+AlCrTiN and pad welded inserts, for which, together with the increase of the forging number, a proportional, slight growth of the loss of material occurred.</jats:p>


Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences ; Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences




ISSN 1733-3490