Arabidopsis thaliana Tolerates Iron Deficiency more than Thellungiella Salsuginea by Inducing Metabolic Changes at the Root Level
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>Several studies have used <jats:italic>A. thaliana</jats:italic> as a model to identify the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying iron deficiency tolerance in plants. Here, <jats:italic>Arabidopsis thaliana</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>Thellungiella salsuginea</jats:italic> were used to investigate the differential responses to iron deficiency of these two species. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic medium containing 5 or 0 μM Fe, for 10 days. Results showed that rosette biomass was more reduced in <jats:italic>T. salsuginea</jats:italic> than in <jats:italic>A. thaliana</jats:italic> when grown on Fe-deficient medium. As a marker for iron deficiency tolerance, the induction of ferric chelate reductase (FCR) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities was observed only in <jats:italic>A. thaliana</jats:italic> roots. In addition, we found that the accumulation of phenolic acids in roots of N1438 ecotype of <jats:italic>A. thaliana</jats:italic> was stimulated by Fe deficiency. Furthermore, an increase of flavonoids content in the root and exudates was observed under Fe-deficiency in this ecotype. Unlike other abiotic stresses, it appears that iron deficiency effects were more pronounced in <jats:italic>Thellungiella</jats:italic> than in <jats:italic>Arabidopsis</jats:italic>. The higher tolerance of the <jats:italic>Arabidopsis</jats:italic> plant to iron deficiency may be due to the metabolic changes occurring in the roots.</jats:p>
ISSN 0001-5296 ; eISSN 1898-0295
deNisiP (2000), Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in cucumber ( Cucumis sativusL ) roots under iron deficiency : activity and kinetic characterization, Journal of Experimental Botany, 1903. ; ChaneyRL (1972), Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans, Plant Physiology, 208, doi.org/10.1104/pp.50.2.208 ; InanG (2004), Salt cress A halophyte and cryophyteArabidopsisrelative model system and its applicability to molecular genetic analyses of growth and development of extremophiles, Plant Physiology, 135. ; JinCW (2007), Iron deficiency - induced secretion of phenolics facilitates the reutilization of root apoplastic iron in red clover, Plant Physiology, 144. ; SingletonVL (1965), Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic - phosphotungstic acid reagents, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16. ; ZocchiG (1990), Fe uptake mechanism in Fe - efficient cucumber roots, Plant Physiology, 92. ; dell (2000), Development of Fe deficiency response in cucumber ( Cucumis sativusL ) roots : involvement of plasma membrane H - ATPase activity, Journal of Experimental Botany, 695, doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.345.695 ; KantS (2008), TheArabidopsishalophytic relativeThellungiellahalophila tolerates nitrogen limiting conditions by maintaining growth , nitrogen uptake , and assimilation, Plant Physiology, 147. ; RömheldV (1986), Evidence for a specific uptake system for iron phytosiderophores in roots of grass, Plant Physiology, 80. ; HellR (2003), Iron uptake , trafficking and homeostasis in plants, Planta, 216. ; BriatJF (2004), Acquisition et gestion du fer par les plantes, Cahiers Agriculture, 13. ; LichtenthalerHK (1988), Chlorophylls and carotenoids : pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes, Methods in Enzymology, 148. ; SusínS (1996), Riboflavin - and - sulphate , two novel flavins accumulating in the roots of iron - deficient sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ), Journal of Biological Chemistry, 5, 268. ; Argyroudi (1970), Photoinduced changes in the chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b ratio in young bean plants, Plant Physiology, 247, doi.org/10.1104/pp.46.2.247 ; López (2000), lasRivasJ Responses of sugar beet roots to iron deficiency : changes in carbon assimilation and oxygen use, Plant Physiology, 124. ; SchmidtW (1999), Mechanisms and regulation of reduction - based iron uptake in plants, New Phytologist, 141. ; DakoraFD (2002), Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low - nutrient environments, Plant Soil, 245. ; MahmoudiH (2005), Differences in responses to iron deficiency between two legumes : lentil ( Lens culinaris ) and chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ), Journal of Plant Physiology, 162. ; VolkovV (2004), Thellungiella halophila , a salt - tolerant relative ofArabidopsis thaliana , possesses effective mechanisms to discriminate between potassium and sodium, Plant Cell and Environment, 27, 1, doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2003.01116.x ; OuerghiZ (2000), Effect of NaCl on photosynthesis of two wheat species durumandT aestivum ) differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Journal of Plant Physiology, 156. ; DewantoV (2002), Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity of and, Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 50. ; CurieC (2003), Iron transport and signaling in plants, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 183, doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.135018 ; BressanRA (2001), Learning from theArabidopsisexperience The next gene search paradigm, Plant Physiology, 127. ; Al (1999), Generic placement of species excluded fromArabidopsis ( Brassicaceae ), Novon, 296. ; HemmMR (2004), Light induces phenylpropanoid metabolism inArabidopsisroots, Plant Journal, 38. ; M (2009), a Responses of two ecotypes of Medicago ciliaris to direct and bicarbonate - induced iron deficiency conditions, Acta Physiologia Plantarum, 31. ; GayAP (1994), Acclimation of Lolium temulentum to enhanced carbon dioxide concentration, Journal of Experimental Botany, 45. ; ZhuJK (2001), Plant salt tolerance, Trends in Plant Science, 66. ; JelaliN (2010), Changes of metabolic responses to direct and induced Fe deficiency of twoPisum sativumcultivars, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68. ; KsouriR (2006), Biochemical responses to true and bicarbonate - induced iron deficiency in grapevine genotypes, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29. ; VolkovV (2006), Thellungiellahalophila , a salt - tolerant relative ofArabidopsis thaliana , has specific root ion channel features supporting Na homeostasis under salinity stress, Plant Journal, 1. ; KeiligK (2009), Effect of flavonoids on heavy metal tolerance inArabidopsis thalianaseedlings, Botanical Studies, 50. ; MsiliniN (2012), Responses of two lettuce cultivars to iron deficiency, Experimental Agriculture, 523, doi.org/10.1017/S0014479712000439 ; RabhiM (2007), Interactive effects of salinity and iron deficiency inMedicago ciliaris, Comptes Rendu Biologie, 330.