The Effect of Temperature, Light and Calcium Carbonate on Seed Germination and Radicle Growth of the Polycarpic Perennial Galium cracoviense (Rubiaceae), a Narrow Endemic Species From Southern Poland

Journal title

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica




No 1

Publication authors

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze


Abstract Germination responses of Galium cracoviense Ehrend. (Rubiaceae), a narrow endemic species from southern Poland, were tested in light and dark conditions at three constant temperatures (5, 10, or 22°C), before and after cold-wet stratification. Additionally, seeds were germinated under different calcium carbonate (CaCO3) concentrations (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mM/L CaCO3) at 22°C in light. The high germination capacity of seeds incubated at different temperatures, shortly after collection, already suggested the absence of dormancy in this species. Thus, the seeds are ready to germinate immediately in the field when water resources are available and the temperature is adequate. Light was a significant factor for G. cracoviense; more seeds germinated in light than in darkness at all temperatures tested. Cold stratification decreased germination especially at higher temperatures. The light requirement for G. cracoviense germination ensures their successful germination on or near the soil surface, and in cracks and crevices in limestone, when temperature and edaphic conditions are favourable. Seeds of this species show temperature enforced dormancy throughout the winter. Germination was significantly affected by calcium carbonate. Non-germinated seeds germinated well after being transferred from higher CaCO3 concentrations to distilled water. The results indicate that the seeds of this species can endure CaCO3 stress without losing their viability and start germination once CaCO3 concentration is reduced. It can be concluded that the seeds of this species require lower Ca2+ ion concentration, moderate temperatures and the presence of light to germinate.


Biological Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences – Cracow Branch


2015[2015.01.01 AD - 2015.12.31 AD]


ISSN 0001-5296 ; eISSN 1898-0295


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