In this paper, the basic cutting characteristics such as cutting forces, cutting power and its distribution, specific cutting energies were determined taking into account variable tool corner radius ranging from 400 to 1200 μm and constant cutting parameters typical for hard turning of a hardened 41Cr4 alloy steel of 55 ± 1 HRC hardness. Finish turning operations were performed using chamfered CBN tools. Moreover, selected roughness profiles produced for different tool corner radius were compared and appropriate surface roughness parameters were measured. The measured values of Ra and Rz roughness parameters are compared with their theoretical values and relevant material distribution curves and bearing parameters are presented.
This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.
The tribological behavior of the PVD-TiAlN coated carbide inserts in dry sliding against two-phase (α-β) titanium alloy,Ti6Al4V grade, was investigated. A modified pin-on-disc device was used to conduct experiments under variable normal load and sliding speed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-analyses by EDS were applied for observations of wear scars and wear products. It was revealed that the increase of sliding speed contributes to decreasing the friction coefficient under a low normal force, whereas the increase of the normal loading causes the friction coefficient is less sensitive to changes in the sliding speed and its values are equal to μ = 0.26-0.34. The adhesive nature of wear along with severe abrasive action of the Ti alloy were documented.
During excavation of the cremation cemetery of urnfield culture in Legnica at Spokojna Street (Lower Silesia, Poland), dated to 1100-700 BC, the largest - so far in Poland – a collection of casting moulds from the Bronze Age was discovered: three moulds for axes casting made out of stone and five moulds for casting sickles, razors, spearhead and chisels, made out of clay. This archaeological find constituted fittings of foundrymen’s graves. In order to perform the complete analysis of moulds in respect of their application in the Bronze Age casting technology analytical methods, as well as, computer aided methods of technological processes were used. Macroscopic investigations were performed and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method was used to analyse the chemical composition and metal elements content in mould cavities. Moulds were subjected to three-dimensional scanning and due to the reverse engineering the geometry of castings produced in these moulds were obtained. The gathered data was used to perform design and research works by means of the MAGMA5 software. Various variants of the pouring process and alloys solidification in these archaeological moulds were simulated. The obtained results were utilised in the interpretation of the Bronze Age casting production in stone and clay moulds, with regard to their quality and possibility of casting defects occurrence being the result of these moulds construction. The reverse engineering, modelling and computer simulation allowed the analysis of moulds and castings. Investigations of casting moulds together with their digitalisation and reconstruction of casting technology, confirm the high advancement degree of production processes in the Bronze Age.
The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model capable of predicting the grain density in the Mg-based matrix phase of an AZ91/SiC composite, as a function of the total mass fraction of the embedded SiC particles. Based on earlier work in a range of alloy systems, we assume an exponential relationship between the grain density and the maximum supercooling during solidification. Analysis of data from cast samples with different thicknesses, and mass fractions of added SiCp, permits conclusions to be drawn on the role of SiCp in increasing grain density. By fitting the data, an empirical nucleation law is derived that can be used in a micro model. Numerical simulation based on the model can predict the grain density of magnesium alloys containing SiC particles, using the mass fraction of the particles as inputs. These predictions are compared with measured data.
Time series of weekly and daily solutions for coordinates of permanent GNSS stations may indicate local deformations in Earth’s crust or local seasonal changes in the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The errors of the determined changes are relatively large, frequently at the level of the signal. Satellite radar interferometry and especially Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a method of a very high accuracy. Its weakness is a relative nature of measurements as well as accumulation of errors which may occur in the case of PSI processing of large areas. It is thus beneficial to confront the results of PSI measurements with those from other techniques, such as GNSS and precise levelling. PSI and GNSS results were jointly processed recreating the history of surface deformation of the area of Warsaw metropolitan with the use of radar images from Envisat and Cosmo- SkyMed satellites. GNSS data from Borowa Gora and Jozefoslaw observatories as well as from WAT1 and CBKA permanent GNSS stations were used to validate the obtained results. Observations from 2000–2015 were processed with the Bernese v.5.0 software. Relative height changes between the GNSS stations were determined from GNSS data and relative height changes between the persistent scatterers located on the objects with GNSS stations were determined from the interferometric results. The consistency of results of the two methods was 3 to 4 times better than the theoretical accuracy of each. The joint use of both methods allows to extract a very small height change below the level of measurement error.