Phytoplankton samples were collected at 141 stations in the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents and Baltic seas, in July-August 1992 and July-August 1993. In fifteen of these stations 22 unarmoured dinoflagellate species from the order Gymnodiniales belonging to the genera Amphidinium, Cochlodinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Torodinium and Polykrikos have been found. Data on 16 species are given here, including synonyms, size or size variation, localities and environmental factors (temperature and salinity at the surface). 14 species are illustrated.
The article presents the most frequent surname in Lithuania — Kazlauskas. Referring to the article “Mysterious Lewandowski” by K. Skowronek (2000), an attempt has been made to account for this frequency in three various ways. First, the principles behind the quantitative structure of anthroponomasticons (Zipf’s law) and the loss of surnames (genetic drift) are discussed. Then the Slavic origin of the surname under consideration has been highlighted as a typical trait of the majority of surnames in Lithuania. In connection with this fact, it has been stressed that caution must be exercised in proposing a thesis on its origin as a translation from Lithuanian on a mass scale, since this thesis requires plentiful empirical evidence. Finally, the etymology of the name is analyzed. Morphologically it is a typical surname derived from a toponym. This supposition is additionally supported by the existence in Poland of numerous localities called Kozłów, Kozłowo or similar name; these in turn are most likely to have been derived from appellative-based personal names of their owners or inhabitants, such as Kozieł.
Phytoplankton samples were collected at 62 stations in the European Arctic Seas and the Faroe — Shetland Islands area. Over 30 species of dinoflagellates were found. 22 species are illustrated by original drawings. The data on synonyms, size or size variability on the distribution and environmental factors (temperature and salinity) are given.
Eight samples of the ice algae were collected from the annual ice in Tikhaia Bay, Hooker Island, Franz Josef Land. Species composition included 58 diatoms (and some Navicula, Nitzschia and other Pennatophyceae unidentified species), 2 dinoflagellates, 2 chrysophyceans, 1 chlorophycean, 1 cyanophycean and possible dinoflagellate and chrysophycean cysts. The maximum quantity was 132300 cells/l. In 4 samples Aulacoseira granulatu prevailed, in other samples Nitzschia frigida, N. cylindrus, Rhizoclonium sp. and dinoflagellate cysts dominated. Xanthiopyxis polaris found by Gran (1904) in Arctic sea ice and referred to the diatoms is, possibly, the dinoflagellate cyst. On the whole, the ice community consisted of benthic and planktonic-benthic species of mainly marine and brackishwater-marine pennate diatoms, their resting stages, freshwater unicellular algae and marine chlorophycean.
Phytoplankton samples were collected at 74 stations in the European Arctic seas, 28 species of the armoured din oft age Hates being found. Thirteen dinoflagellates are illustrated by original drawings. The data on synonyms, size or size variation, localities and environmental factors (temperature and salinity) at the surface are given.
“The influenza virus behaves just as it seems to have done for five hundred or a thousand years, and we are no more capable of stopping epidemics or pandemics than our ancestors were,” wrote Charles Cockburn from the World Health Organization back in 1973. Is his remark still just as apt today?
In the region of Bransfield Strait and southern part of Drake Passage the highest amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs — compounds of the DDT group, HCH isomers and PCBs) were found in the samples taken at the sampling station where the CHs bottom deposits were released to the upper layers due to the special hydrological situation at this station. Increased amounts of CHs were observed also in phytoplankton sampled close to the melting ice of glacier origin which was considered as a source of pollution. However, phytoplankton sampled from the waters covered with pack-ice exhibited the lowest rate of CHs accumulation. Slightly elevated CHs accumulation was found in sea ice diatoms. All the samples exhibited elevated amount of polichlorinated biphenyls, markedly higher than that of chloroorganic insecticides.
In Antarctic summer 1983/1984 samples of planktonie and attached diatoms were collected in the Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) as well as samples of planktonie diatoms in the region of South Orkneys, Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait (BIOMASS-SIBEX Project). Using gas chromatography residues of chloroorganic pesticides, namely the compounds of the DDT group and HCH isomers were determined. It was found that the highest values of the content of these compounds occurred in attached diatoms coming from areas continuously washed with water from the melting glacier, in planktonie diatoms from the samples of the Admiralty Bay and from strongly glaciated regions. A hypothesis was put forward that along with the direct atmospheric transport the release of the deposits of these compounds from ice and glaciers during their melting is an additional source of input of chloroorganic biocides into Antarctic waters. Diatoms are good indicators of this process.
Moulting southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina (L.), were counted in 17 discrete wallows at Walker Bay on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands between 2 January and 16 February 1994. Daily weather conditions were also recorded. It was also found that, although there were no overall correlations between wind scale, air temperature, sunshine, precipitation, sea roughness and cloud cover with seal numbers, there were conditions on specific days that affected the movements of seals between wallows. Most notably, it was found that numbers of seals decreased when they were exposed to winds, and that they often sought out more sheltered sites nearby.
Species diversity of Collembola was studied in the vicinity of Polish Polar Station, Hornsund area, West Spitsbergen. A list of 32 species has been compiled, and their distribution over microlandscapes and microhabitats in the study area has been presented.
The aim of the study was to compare anaesthesia protocol utilizing combination ketamine/ medetomidine with epidural lidocaine or morphine to orthopaedic surgery in rabbits. All rabbits received intramuscularly medetomidine (0.5 mg/kg) and ketamine (20 mg/kg). In group L (n=13) epidural injection was performed with lidocaine (3 mg/kg) and in group M (n=13) with morphine (0.1 mg/kg) diluted with sterile saline to 0.6 ml. Rabbits underwent bilateral mosaicplasty surgery. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arte- rial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured every 5 minute during surgical procedure. Duration of sensory blockade was measured based on toe pinch reflex and recorded. Hemodynamic parameters were comparable at baseline in both groups. We did not observe significant differences in HR, RR, SBP, DBP, MAP between group L and M. Intragroup statistical analysis revealed differences at different time points in group M in terms of HR, SBP, DBP, MAP. In rabbits in group M blood pressure dropped while HR increased over time. In both groups a decrease in SpO2 was observed. Mean duration of loss of the toe pinch reflex was similar between group L and M, and amounted to 72.79±34.48 and 82.80±17.85 minutes, respectively.
Communities of soil invertebrates were studied in 4 types of tundra ecosystems on Spitsbergen (Hornsund area) during the vegetative season of 1989. Taxonomic composition, density and biomass of soil fauna were evaluated in the sites along a gradient of increase in the biogenic impact of bird colonies, i.e. in polygonal tundra, mossy/lichenous tundra, Calliergon stramineum moss association, and mossy associations near a colony of Little Auks (Alle die). Average total biomass of soil invertebrates increased in this site sequence from 1.1 to 25.0 g wet weight x m-2 (mainly due to collembolans and nematodes). Seasonal dynamics of all groups of soil meso- and macrofauna (Nematoda, Enchytraeidae, Aranei, Acarina, Collembola, Coleoptera, Diptera larvae) is presented and discussed.
Contents of PCBs was investigated using the gas chromatography method in the tissue of four Antarctic migratory birds: Oceanites oceanicus, Larus dominicanus, Catharacta skua and Sterna vittata, and the three penguin species: Pvgoscelis adeliae, P. papua and P. antarctica. Samples were collected at King George Island in February 1978 and, for comparison, in March 1983. The highest PCBs content was recorded in the adipose tissue of O. oceanicus and C. skua (15.7 and 1.2 ppm). Differences in the content of these compounds in the tissue of various penguin species in 1978 was observed. The mean cumulation level of PCBs in the adipose tissue of penguins was higher in 1983 than in 1978. Differences in the level of PCBs contents in the tissue of migratory birds were related to their winter migrations to areas polluted to various degress with PCBs remains. A tendency to the increase of the contamination of penguin tissues with PCBs was observed. This tendency was related to the increase of vhe pollution of the Antarctic environment with these compounds.
In 1979- 1981 at the King George Island samples of adipose tissue of 5 pinniped species (L. carcinophagus, L. weddelli, H. leptonyx, M. leonina and A. gazella) were collected and the contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined with the gas chromatography method. The highest values were recorded in the leopard seal (432.3 -614.7 ppb DDT), the second highest values in the mature elephant seal (73.4 ppb DDT) and the third in the Weddell seal (54.4 — 69.1 ppb DDT). In the Weddell seal the highest level of HCH content (23.3 — 32.1 ppb) was recorded. A decrease in the content of pp'DDE in the adipose tissue of crabeater seal in successive years was recorded, the values being 36.8 ppb in 1979, 24.4 ppb in 1980 and 15.3 ppb in 1981, as well as an increase in the concentration of HCH (15.3 ppb in 1980 and 27.4 ppb in 1981). The contents of CHs in the adipose tissue of Antarctic pinnipeds are 100—1000 times lower than those in the Arctic seals.
It has been shown in the present paper that exploitation of the experimental potential of a photoacoustic technique can provide information on a type of intermolecular interactions in aqueous mixtures containing organic liquids, when the basic parameters of these mixtures, such as density, ρ, specific heat, cp, or thermal conductivity, λ, are unknown. Earlier investigations of concentration dependence of effusivity in different aqueous solutions of organic liquids demonstrated that the photoacoustics method is a sensitive tool to identify hydrophobic properties of such liquids. In our experiment this suggestion was exploited for a solution of methanol which is known to display much weaker hydrophobicity than other alcohols. It was confirmed that the location of extreme deviations from linearity for the thermal effusivity, Δe, agrees well with that of characteristic points for the isentropic compressibility coefficient, κS, and the excess molar volume, V_m^E, as a function of the concentration.
The aim of our study was to determine the influence of L-carnitine (L-CAR) on the cellular parameters of hen erythrocytes during a 48 hour exposure to L-CAR at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL in nutrient-deficient medium. Cell morphology, haemolysis, caspase 3/7 activity and glucose uptake (GU) were determined. The results showed a lower percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased haemolysis of erythrocytes treated for 48 hours at all the concentrations of L-CAR. The amino acid at 50 mg/mL inhibited the activity of proapoptotic caspase 3/7; however, it increased GU. In contrast, caspase 3/7 level was increased but GU was decreased in erythrocytes treated with 100 mg/mL of L-CAR when compared to the control. It may be hypothesized that reduction of apoptotic changes in hen erythrocytes may result from increased GU.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex, dynamic and hemostatic disorder which develops secondarily to a disease characterized with an imbalance in the pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant components of hemostasis. The aim of the study is to evaluate hemostatic dysfunc- tion and the DIC syndrome in cattle with displaced abomasum (DA), with using the hematologic analyses and an extensive coagulation profile in the 96 hour-period including before and after surgery. The animal material of the study consisted of 12 dairy cows diagnosed with displaced abomasum (9 LDA and 3 RDA without volvulus) in the 2-4 week period after parturation and with no other post-partum disease. In dairy cows diagnosed with DA, hematological, coagulomet- ric (PT, APTT, Fibrinogen) and coagulation factor analyses [D-Dimer, TAT (thrombin-anti- thrombin complex), ATIII (antithrombin III), PAI-1 (plazminogen activator inhibitor-1] were performed in blood samples obtained before the operation as well as 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 10, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the operation. In the DA cases, abnormalities were found in 6 of the 8 coagulation parameters. In the LDA and RDA groups, prolonged PT (sec), PT (INR) and APTT, hypofibrinogenemia, an increase in serum D-Dimer concentration at 72 and 96 hours after the operation and an increase in serum ATIII concentrations before and 30, 60 minutes and 2, 5, 72 and 96 hours after the operation was found (p<0.05). Hemostatic dysfunction and the risk of DIC developing in DA cases and continuing in the post-operative period was determined.
Suspended matter, phytoplankton and light attenuation were investigated in various North East Greenland, Svalbard and Siberian river mouths in 1992-1994. The amount of mineral suspensions well correlated with freshwater discharge in the case of tidal glacier bays, while such correlation in Siberian rivers and pack ice meltwater was not found. Freshwater phytoplankton species were found in Siberian estuaries only and in two other ecosystems marine and ice phytoplankton species prevailed. The light attenuation connected with freshwater discharge seems to be a key factor limiting primary production in coastal Actic waters in the summer. The amount of glacial suspensions well correlated with the salinity drop in the case of Svalbard, while Siberian river estuaries produced very turbid waters with the suspension loads not correlated to freshwater or depth.
The number of human cases of salmonellosis in the EU was 94,625 in 2015. Considering the source of these infections, Salmonella spp. was most frequently detected in broiler chicken meat and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was the most commonly reported serovar. The efficacy of probiotics in limiting Salmonella spp. infection in poultry has been demonstrated in numerous papers. The administration of probiotics at the level of primary production reduces the risk of contamination of poultry food products with Salmonella spp. A study was carried out in order to determine the potential for reducing the Salmonella spp. population in broiler chickens with the use of the Lavipan (JHJ, Poland) probiotic that comprised selected stains of lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cervisae. Salmonella spp.-free broiler chickens were divided into two groups and received the same feed with (group L) or without (group C) the probiotic throughout the experiment. All day-old chickens were infected per os with SE. Samples of cecum content were collected 2, 4, and 6 weeks after SE infection and pectoral muscles were collected 6 weeks following SE infection for the evaluation of the SE population number. Serum samples for serological examinations were collected 6 weeks after infection. Six weeks after infection, the number of SE-positive cecal samples was lower in the L group (12.5% positive) in comparison to the C group (87.5%). Similar results were demonstrated for the muscle samples (25% in contrast to 87.5%). At the same time, in both cases, the SE CFU/g was significantly lower in the L group. The results of our study indicate that Lavipan was capable of reducing the population of SE in the gastrointestinal tract, which eventually improved the hygienic parameters of the pectoral muscles. Four weeks after infection, SE was not detected in any of the experimental groups. In both groups, no specific anti-SE antibodies were detected.
Senecavirus A (SVA) the only member of the Senecavirus genus within the Picornaviridae family, is an emerging pathogen causing swine idiopathic vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses. Here, SVA strain (CH-HNKZ-2017) was isolated from a swine farm exhibiting vesicular disease in Henan Province of Central China. A phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequence indicated that CH-HNKZ-2017 was closely related to US-15-40381IA, indica- ting that a new SVA isolate had emerged in China.
Characterisation of copy number variation (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has pro- vided evidence for the relationship of this type of genetic variation with the occurrence of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer lesions. The role of CNVs and germinal or somatic LOHs in canine mammary tumours is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify CNVs and LOHs in canine mammary tumours. Forty-eight samples obtained from normal (n=24) and tumour (n=24) tissues of dogs were analysed. In the study, we used CanineHD BeadChip assay (Illumina) and OncoSNP software to identify copy number alternations in genomes of dif- ferent dog breeds and in different mammary cancer types occurring in this species. The analyses revealed that, in the case of CNV, the amplification-type variants were longer and more frequent than deletions. Based on the analysis of the frequency of different types of aberrations in the in- dividual parts of the genome, regions that are particularly susceptible to structural aberrations were indicated. The fraction of genes identified within these regions was associated with major processes of neoplastic transformation. Association analysis of such traits as tumour grading as well as the size and age of dogs demonstrated that structural aberrations were more frequent in dogs diagnosed with tumour malignancy grade II and III, in dogs with a larger body size, and in large dogs aged 7-8. The promising results of these pioneering investigations prompt continuation thereof to analyse other types of cancer.
In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
The aim of this study was to analyse and identify specific buffalo seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) responsible for sperm cryotolerance during low temperature storage. Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) of the motility and viability of buffalo spermatozoa was performed before freezing and after thawing. Two sample groups were formed – ejaculates with high cryotol- erance (group A) and low cryotolerance (group B). CASA demonstrated that the initial progres- sive motility after thawing of the spermatozoa in group A is significantly higher than in group B (p<0.001). Group B showed a significant increase in the percentage of static and non-progressive spermatozoa at 240 min, when compared to group A (p<0.05). SPPs, proteins in the cryoprotec- tive medium (PM) and proteins in the mixture of PM and SP were separated by High Perfor- mance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Comparative analysis of the chromatographic profiles was performed to identify specific proteins related to sperm cryotolerance. SPPs profiles showed 5 distinct protein peaks in both groups, ranging from 500 kDa to 50 Da. Chromatograms of group A and group B showed quantitative and qualitative differences in protein content. Chromato- grams of proteins in PM showed 11 well-expressed peaks. HPLC analysis of the mixtures of SPPs from the two groups and PM visualized the formation of a new bio-complex structure expressed by a protein peak specific for group A (7.674 min, AU 1.50). This protein peak can be referred as a phenotypic trait for buffalo ejaculates with high sperm cryotolerance.