Search results

Filters

  • Journals

Search results

Number of results: 2
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

In Western music culture instruments have been developed according to unique instrument acoustical features based on types of excitation, resonance, and radiation. These include the woodwind, brass, bowed and plucked string, and percussion families of instruments. On the other hand, instrument performance depends on musical training, and music listening depends on perception of instrument output. Since musical signals are easier to understand in the frequency domain than the time domain, much effort has been made to perform spectral analysis and extract salient parameters, such as spectral centroids, in order to create simplified synthesis models for musical instrument sound synthesis. Moreover, perceptual tests have been made to determine the relative importance of various parameters, such as spectral centroid variation, spectral incoherence, and spectral irregularity. It turns out that the importance of particular parameters depends on both their strengths within musical sounds as well as the robustness of their effect on perception. Methods that the author and his colleagues have used to explore timbre perception are: 1) discrimination of parameter reduction or elimination; 2) dissimilarity judgments together with multidimensional scaling; 3) informal listening to sound morphing examples. This paper discusses ramifications of this work for sound synthesis and timbre transposition.
Go to article

Abstract

Source/filter models have frequently been used to model sound production of the vocal apparatus and musical instruments. Beginning in 1968, in an effort to measure the transfer function (i.e., transmission response or filter characteristic) of a trombone while being played by expert musicians, sound pressure signals from the mouthpiece and the trombone bell output were recorded in an anechoic room and then subjected to harmonic spectrum analysis. Output/input ratios of the signals’ harmonic amplitudes plotted vs. harmonic frequency then became points on the trombone’s transfer function. The first such recordings were made on analog 1/4 inch stereo magnetic tape. In 2000 digital recordings of trombone mouthpiece and anechoic output signals were made that provide a more accurate measurement of the trombone filter characteristic. Results show that the filter is a high-pass type with a cutoff frequency around 1000 Hz. Whereas the characteristic below cutoff is quite stable, above cutoff it is extremely variable, depending on level. In addition, measurements made using a swept-sine-wave system in 1972 verified the high-pass behavior, but they also showed a series of resonances whose minima correspond to the harmonic frequencies which occur under performance conditions. For frequencies below cutoff the two types of measurements corresponded well, but above cutoff there was a considerable difference. The general effect is that output harmonics above cutoff are greater than would be expected from linear filter theory, and this effect becomes stronger as input pressure increases. In the 1990s and early 2000s this nonlinear effect was verified by theory and measurements which showed that nonlinear propagation takes place in the trombone, causing a wave steepening effect at high amplitudes, thus increasing the relative strengths of the upper harmonics.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more