The present paper investigates the phenomenon of outbound anaphora on the basis of morphologically complex words in English and Polish. The discussion focuses on English noun+noun compounds and on Polish relational adjectives. Examples are provided when the nominal modifi er in an English compound can function as an antecedent for anaphoric expressions, such as possessive pronouns and personal pronouns. It is also shown that nouns which underlie Polish relational adjectives can become visible (as potential antecedents) to anaphoric expressions. It is further argued that the contextual accessibility of the underlying nouns “hidden” inside compounds or inside relational adjectives depends on the semantic transparency of the morphologically complex forms (i.e. compounds or suffi xal derivatives).
The aim of the paper is to discuss vagueness of denominal adjectives in English in their qualitative usage. Semantic indeterminacy will be illustrated for selected denominal adjectives with the suffi x –ial, focusing on the lexeme professorial. The range of the qualitative senses of such adjectives will be exemplifi ed by sentences culled from COCA and other linguistic corpora. It will be argued that typicality effects (as discussed by Lakoff 1987) are relevant to the identifi cation (and fl exibility) of meanings of denominal adjectives.
In the fi rst half of the 20th century, the German historiography of medicine created genuine ideas of methodology of research on the history of the medical sciences and medicinal practice. They were a continuation of the native historiographic tradition which was present in German university didactics and literature about the history of medicine in the 19th century. The uniqueness of German anti-positivist methodologies was based on a perception of cultural context in the genesis of medical theories and doctrines. They were researching cultural factors in the overall structure and analysing their infl uence on academics’ and common folk’s perception. There were two rival methodological trends — neoromantic and sociocultural ones, and the second gained wider infl uence in the historiography of medicine. The sociocultural trend had a few research schools, among them: Kulturgeschichte der Medizin, Sozialgeschichte der Medizin and Alltagsgeschichte der Medizin. The main purpose of this paper is to show the genesis of German anti-positivist trends in 20th century, the most important achievements of sociocultural historiography in Germany till 1933 and after 1945, and its infl uence on the standard American historiography of medicine in 20th century. The paper also presents a wide range of literature printed in both Germany and USA about the aforementioned historiographic trends.
The paper shows a study on the relationship between noise measures and sound quality (SQ) features that are related to annoyance caused by the traffic noise. First, a methodology to perform analyses related to the traffic noise annoyance is described including references to parameters of the assessment of road noise sources. Next, the measurement setup, location and results are presented along with the derived sound quality features. Then, statistical analyses are performed to compare the measurement results and sound quality features. The included conclusions are focused on showing that the obtained loudness values, regardless of the used system, are similar in a statistical sense. Contrarily, sharpness, roughness and fluctuation strength values differ for the tools employed.