This paper considers the assessment of attenuation in aluminium alloys castings and in cast iron prepared by gravity casting method and by casting under pressure. The issue of ultrasound attenuation is important in setting the conditions of non-destructive (NDT) testing, especially in casted materials. The characteristics of the ultrasonic technique and ultrasonic attenuation and the calculation of the attenuation and the velocity of ultrasound are presented in the theoretical part of this paper. For experimental measurements, cylindrical castings from AlSi alloy (a hypoeutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 7% - AlSi7 and a eutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 12% - AlSi12) and from grey and ductile cast iron were made. The ultrasonic records of the casting control, the calculation of ultrasound attenuation for individual samples are listed and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of measurements and comparison of calculated ultrasound attenuation is at the end of this article.
The main goal of the article is to identify artificially created defects like lack of fusion and incomplete penetration in butt weld joint using non-destructive volumetric methods. These defects are the most serious defects in welds of steel constructions from the safety point of view. For identification, an ultrasonic phased array technique and a conventional X-ray using digital imaging were used. The theoretical part of the article describes the current state of the given issue and provides basic theoretical knowledge about ultrasonic and X-ray welding tests. In the experimental part, the procedure and results of testing butt weld joint are described by both non-destructive methods. The butt weld joint was made from steel S420MC. Each indication obtained by the ultrasonic and x-ray technique is supplemented by the macrostructure of the weld taken from the indication position. The results of the experimental work mentioned in the article point to the possibility and reliability of the identification of melting defects by selected nondestructive methods in terms of their character and orientation.