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Abstract

The paper presents the modelling measurement results of the load-displacement relation for scaffold stands and bracings. In the case of stands, there are two sections of curves, i.e. a straight-line and curvilinear section, and in the case of bracings, two straight line sections as well as one curvilinear section are distinguished. As a result of analyses, it is concluded that the sections which can be approximated by means of linear functions should be distinguished in graphs, if possible. On the one hand, this results from the evaluation methods of scaffold components. Nevertheless, the determination of elastic-linear scope of components’ operation is useful in engineering practice during computer calculations. Moreover, the method of determining an intersection point between functions, approximating tests results, along with analysis of the impact of polynomial degree, approximating the research results, on the time and effectiveness of the process of approximating functions selection, are all demonstrated in this article. The proposed method can prove useful in all science fields where curves obtained from any research (laboratory test, in situ test, numerical analysis) require approximation or replacement with a simpler description.
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Abstract

This paper concerns an approach to model the ledger-stand joints of modular scaffolds. Based on the analysis of the working range of the ledger (represented by a linear relationship between load and displacement), two models of the ledger-stand joint are analysed: first – with flexibility joints and second – with rigid joints and with a transition part of lower stiffness. Parameters are selected based on displacement measurements and numerical analyses of joints, then they are verified. On the basis of performed research, it can be stated that both methods of joint modelling recommended in this paper, can be applied in engineering practices.
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Abstract

This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
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Abstract

Work in unfavorable, changing environmental conditions negatively affects people working on scaffoldings used on construction sites, which may increase the risk of occurrence of dangerous situations. The purpose of this article is to show the scale of temperature changes which workers are exposed to. The paper compares examples of temperature measurements obtained from a metrological station and during tests on scaffoldings located in the Lodz and Warsaw regions. This article also presents the methodology of examining environmental parameters of the surroundings where employees work on scaffoldings. Analysis results show that high temperatures and significant temperature variations frequently occur on the scaffoldings, which leads to a lack of adaptability and consequently to tiredness or decreased alertness. Unfavorable environmental conditions can lead to behaviors which, in turn, can cause accidents.
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