This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermo-physical and thermo-dynamical data. It was showed the brass refining with the many-carbide reagents introduced in to the slag. The paper presents the results of the structure analysis of the brass after carbide slag refining in the industrial conditions. The results of the macrostructure analysis have confirmed the argument on high reducing effectiveness of manganese and aluminium carbide used during CuZn39Pb2 alloy melting. The X-Ray microanalysis of the ingot cross-section has shown considerable discrepancies in the disposition of the inclusions. This effects showed on the great influence of reduction melting condition in to the brass melting
During the slag refining process, in the real systems, the complex processes of mass exchange appear. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining. Due to this kind of influences there is a possibility of direction and control of melting copper and it’s alloys.
The article describes the optimization of the melting brass. Brasses, as one of the most popular alloys of copper, deserve special attention in the context of the processes of melting, which in turn would provide not only products of better quality, but also reduce the cost of their production or refining. For this purpose, several studies carried out deriatographic (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) using derivatograph. The results were confronted with the program SLAG - PROP used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the coatings extraction. Based on the survey and analysis of the program can identify the most favorable physico - chemical properties, which should be carried out treatments. This allows for slag mixtures referred configurations oxide matrix containing specific stimulators of the reaction. Conducted empirical studies indicate a convergence of the areas proposed by the application. It should also be noted that the program also indicates additional areas in which to carry out these processes would get even better, to optimize the melting process, the results.
The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-toblister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.
This article presents results of studies on multicriteria optimisation in the decopperisation process of flash smelting slags coming from the process of decopperisation at the "Głogów II" Copper Smelter. Measurements of viscosity were conducted using a high-temperature viscometer manufactured by Brookfield company. An addition in the form of calcium fluoride has an advantageous influence on decreasing the liquidus temperature of slag, and the effect of decreasing viscosity at the participation of calcium fluoride is significant. A motivation to conduct studies on viscosity of decopperised slags is an optimisation of the process of decopperisation at an improvement of this process parameters, i.e. the time of melt per one production cycle and consumption of electric power in the whole process. The efficiency of optimisation of the process course depends not only on an accepted criterion of the quality of controlling, a type of technological parameters, but also, to large extent, on characteristics and features of these parameters. CaCO3 currently added to the process of decopperisation efficiently decreases viscosity of flash slag, at the same time has influence on an increase of the yield of copper in alloy, but on the other hand, it increases the mass of slag, artificially under representing concentration of this metal. The article is completed with a conclusion of discussed issues, stating that a search for a new technological addition is still necessary,
The article presents an integrated analytical and measurement system for evaluation of the properties of cast metals and alloys. The presented platform is an extension of the SLAG - PROP application with new modules, which allow to use information on metallurgical processes in an even more effective way, as well as to evaluate the finished product. In addition, the construction of a measuring station for the analysis of thermal processes taking place in a metal bath allows for precise observation of phenomena together with their appropriate interpretation. The article presents not only the cooling curves of certain copper alloys. The analysis also covered mechanical properties related to hardness, finished products depending on the mold in which the products were cast. In the literature one can find information about the mechanical properties of products in the improved state, usually after plastic or thermal treatment, omitting their properties obtained as a result of a naturally made casting. The article also presents the method of placing information in the database using a convenient graphical tool.
Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.
This paper presents the idea of increasing the effectiveness of slag decopperisation in an electric furnace in the "Głogów II" Copper Smelter by replacing the currently added CaCO3with a less energy-intensive technological additive. As a result of this conversion, one may expect improved parameters of the process, including process time or power consumption per cycle. The incentives to optimize the process are the benefits of increasing copper production in the company and the growing global demand for this metal. The paper also describes other factors that may have a significant impact on the optimization of the copper production process. Based on the literature analysis, a solution has been developed that improves the copper production process. The benefits of using a new technology additive primarily include increased share of copper in the alloy, reduced production costs, reduced amount of power consumed per cycle and reduced time it takes to melt. At the conclusion of the paper, the issues raised are highlighted, stressing that mastering the slag slurry process in electric furnaces requires continuous improvement.
The article discusses the process of copper production in a slurry furnace and in a converter, with the indication of corrosion effects of the extractor. The furnace shaft and settling furnace of the flash furnace were analyzed. The basic factors determining the choice of singlestage technology of copper smelting in relation to the exploitation of refractory materials were indicated. The effects of dissolving the furnace lining material through slag have been presented. Structural analysis results using a scanning microscope are also included. The kinetics of destruction of ceramic materials under the influence of copper slag were evaluated. It has been shown that detailed analyzes are necessary in order to extend the time of furnace extensibility of furnaces in copper processes. The surface layer of the crucible softens due to saturation with slag reagents and is then washed out and moves in the solid form to the slag. The research in the article indicate not only the possibility of dissolution of the ceramic material in the molten slag, but also possibility of erosive activity of the slag on that material.
Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.
A special Slag-Prop Cu database has been developed to archive data from laboratory and industrial tests related to post-reduction slags. In order to enrich the data areas, it was decided to design a system for measuring the temperature of the liquid slag and its viscosity. Objectives of research work are to gather information on the properties of post-slags such as the temperature of liquid slag and its viscosity. The discussed issues are especially important in the foundry practice. Designed research stand and using of database applications can greatly facilitate the work of metallurgists, foundrymen, technologists and scientists. The viscosity measurement was developed and presented earlier. The author's analytical methodology was supplemented by a thyristor measuring system (described in the article). The system temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. Measurement of the voltage mV - using the Seebeck effect can be measured throughout the entire range of thermocouple resistance, up to 1300 °C. Direct temperature measurement ⁰C - measurement only below 1000 ⁰C. Additional measurement - the measurement can also be read from the pyrometer set above the bath. The temperature and the reading frequency depend on the device itself. The principle of measurement is that in a molten metal / slag crucible, we put a N-type thermocouple. The thermocouples are hung by means of a tripod above the crucible and placed in a crucible. The thermocouple is connected to a compensating line dedicated to this type of thermocouple. The cable is in turn connected to a special multimeter that has the ability to connect to a computer and upload results. Temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. The Sn-Pb alloy has been subjected to testing for proper operation of the device. In this foot should be observed the supercooling of the liquid, which initiates the crystallization process and in which latent heat begins to exude raising the temperature until the coagulation temperature is reached.
The suspension of the copper droplets in the post-processing slag taken directly from the KGHM-Polska Miedź S.A. Factory (from the direct-to-blister technology as performed in the flash furnace) was subjected to the special treatment with the use of the one of the typical industrial reagent and with the complex reagent newly patented by the authors. This treatment was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company in the semi-industrial conditions. The result of the CaCO3, and Na2CO3 chemicals influence on the coagulation and subsequent sedimentation of copper droplets on the crucible bottom were subjected to comparison with the sedimentation forced by the mentioned complex reagent. The industrial chemicals promoted the agglomeration of copper droplets but the coagulation was arrested / blocked by the formation of the lead envelope. Therefore, buoyancy force forced the motion of the partially coagulated copper droplets towards the liquid slag surface rather than sedimentation on the crucible bottom. On the other hand, the complex reagent was able to influence the mechanical equilibrium between copper droplets and some particles of the liquid slag as well as improve the slag viscosity. Finally, the copper droplets coagulated successfully and generally, were subjected to a settlement on the crucible bottom as desired / requested.
Some metallographic studies performed on the basis of the massive forging steel static ingot, on its cross-section, allowed to reveal the following morphological zones: a/ columnar grains (treated as the austenite single crystals), b/ columnar into equiaxed grains transformation, c/ equiaxed grains at the ingot axis. These zones are reproduced theoretically by the numerical simulation. The simulation was based on the calculation of both temperature field in the solidifying large steel ingot and thermal gradient field obtained for the same boundary conditions. The detailed analysis of the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement shows that the zone of columnar grains begins to disappear at the first point of inflection and the equiaxed grains are formed exclusively at the second point of inflection of the analyzed curve. In the case of the continuously cast brass ingots three different morphologies are revealed: a/ columnar structure, b/ columnar and equiaxed structure with the CET, and c/ columnar structure with the single crystal formation at the ingot axis. Some forecasts of the temperature field are proposed for these three revealed morphologies. An analysis / forecast of the behavior of the operating point in the mold is delivered for the continuously cast ingot. A characteristic delay between some points of breakage of the temperature profile recorded at the operating point and analogous phenomena in the solidifying alloy is postulated.
The post-processing slags containing about 0.8 wt.% of copper were subjected to the treatment of a complex reagent. The chemical composition of the complex reagent has been elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. The slags had an industrial origin and were delivered by the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace assisted by the arc furnace. An agglomeration of copper droplets suspended in the liquid slag, their coagulation, and deposition on the bottom of furnace were observed after the treatment this post-processing slag by the mentioned reagent. The treatment of the post-processing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the arc furnace equipped with some additional electrodes situated at the furnace bottom (additional, in comparison with the arc furnace usually applied in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The behaviour of the copper droplets in the liquid slag within the competition between buoyancy force and gravity was studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Eventually, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the furnace bottom according to the requirements. The agglomeration and coagulation of the copper droplets were significantly improved by an optimized tilting of the upper electrodes and even by their rotation. Moreover, the settlement was substantially facilitated and improved by the employment of both upper and lower system of electrodes with the simultaneous substitution of the variable current by the direct current.
The scope of work included the launch of the process of refining slag suspension in a gas oven using a variety of technological additives. After the refining process (in the context of copper recovery), an assessment of the effect of selected reagents at the level of the slag refining suspension (in terms of copper recovery). Method sieve separated from the slag waste fraction of metallic, iron - silicate and powdery waste. Comparison of these photographs macroscopic allowed us to evaluate the most advantageous method of separating metallic fraction from the slag. After applying the sample A (with KF2 + NaCl) we note that in some parts of the slag are still large amounts of metallic fraction. The fraction of slag in a large majority of the elements has the same size of 1 mm, and a larger portion of the slag, the size of which is from 2 to 6 mm. Definitely the best way is to remove the copper by means of the component B (with NaCl ) and D (with KF2 ). However, as a result of removing the copper by means of component C (with CaO) were also obtained a relatively large number of tiny droplets of copper, which was problematic during segregation. In both cases we were able to separate the two fractions in a fast and simple manner.
Trial series of cast alloy MO59 obtained from qualified scrap was investigated. SEM and TEM of resulting precipitates were conducted. The SEM analysis demonstrated the dependence of silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel in the composition of the so-called hard precipitates. TEM analysis showed the formation of phase AlFeSi and AlCr. Made studies have shown the important role of the composition of the batch melts brass CuZn39Pb2 type. The analysis of SEM and TEM resulting precipitates pointed to the formation of various forms of divisions, only one of which was described in the literature character of the so-called hard inclusions. The SEM studies demonstrated the dependence of the occurrence of inclusions rich in silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel. In contrast, additional TEM analysis indicated the formation of AlFeSi phase type and AlCr. The results of the analyses referred to the structure of the batch. Due to the difficulty of obtaining recycled materials that do not contain these elements necessary to carry out further analyzes in the direction of defining the role of phosphorus in the formation of the so-called hard inclusions.
There are presents the internal recycling in anode furnace, in addition to mainly blister copper and converter copper. During the process there arise the two types of semi-finished products intended for further pyro metallurgical processing: anode copper and anode slag. The stream of liquid blister copper enters into the anode furnace treatment, in which the losses are recovered, e.g. copper, resulting from oxidation and reduction of sulfides, oxides and the oxidation of metallic compounds of lead, zinc and iron. In the liquid phase there are still gaseous states, which gives the inverse relationship relating to the solid phase, wherein the gases found an outlet in waste gas or steam. The results of chemical analysis apparently differ from each other, because crystallite placement, the matrix structure and the presence of other phases and earth elements are not compared, which can be regained in the process of electrorefining. One should not interpret negatively smaller proportion of copper in the alloy, since during the later part of the production more elements can be obtained, for example from sludge, such as platinum group metals and lanthanides. According to the research the quality of blister copper, to a large extent, present in the alloy phase to many other elements, which can be recovered.
A vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-ton forging steel ingot has been performed by curtesy of the CELSA – Huta Ostrowiec plant. Some metallographic studies were able to reveal not only the chilled undersized grains under the ingot surface but columnar grains and large equiaxed grains as well. Additionally, the structural zone within which the competition between columnar and equiaxed structure formation was confirmed by metallography study, was also revealed. Therefore, it seemed justified to reproduce some of the observed structural zones by means of numerical calculation of the temperature field. The formation of the chilled grains zone is the result of unconstrained rapid solidification and was not subject of simulation. Contrary to the equiaxed structure formation, the columnar structure or columnar branched structure formation occurs under steep thermal gradient. Thus, the performed simulation is able to separate both discussed structural zones and indicate their localization along the ingot radius as well as their appearance in term of solidification time.