Polygonum orientale with beautiful red flowers can be found as one dominant species in the vicinity of most water bodies and wetlands in China. However, its phytoremediation potential has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic or organic pollutants. We investigated P. orientale response to low and moderate levels of phenol stress (≤ 80 mg L-1). Endpoints included phenol tolerance of P. orientale and the removal of the pollutant, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to the cell membrane, osmotic regulators and photosynthetic pigments. In plant leaves, phenol stress significantly increased the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the contents of proline, soluble sugars and carotenoids, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), H2O2 and electrolyte leakage (EL) levels remained unaltered. On the other hand, there were significant decreases of soluble protein and chlorophyll contents. We demonstrated that, in combination with phenol tolerance and its removal, P. orientale has efficient protection mechanisms against phenol-induced oxidative damage (≤ 80 mg L-1). We propose that P. orientale could be used as an alternative and interesting material in the phytoremediation of phenol.
Abstract NH4+ is an important N-source which regulates plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanism of NH4+ uptake and its-mediated signaling is poorly understood. Here, we performed phosphoproteomic studies using the titanium dioxide (TiO2)-mediated phosphopeptides collection method together with LC-MS analysis. The results indicated that phosphorylation levels of 23 and 43 peptides/proteins involved in diverse aspects, including metabolism, transport and signaling pathway, were decreased and increased respectively after NH4+ treatment in rice roots. Among 23 proteins detected, IDD10, a key transcription factor in ammonium signaling, was identified to reduce phosphorylation level of S313 residue. Further biochemical analysis using IDD10-GFP transgenic plants and immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that NH4+ supply reduces IDD10 phosphorylation level. Phosphorylation of ammonium transporter 1;1 (AMT1;1) was increased upon NH4+ treatment. Interestingly, phosphorylation of T446, a rice specific residue against Arabidopsis was identified. It was also established that phosphorylation of T452 is conserved with T460 of Arabidopsis AMT1;1. Yeast complementation assay with transformation of phosphomimic forms of AMT1;1 (T446/D and T452/D) into 31019b strain revealed that phosphorylation at T446 and T452 residues abolished AMT1;1 activity, while their plasma membrane localization was not changed. Our analyses show that many proteins were phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by NH4+ that may provide important evidence for studying ammonium uptake and its mediated signaling by which rice growth and development are regulated.