Population density varies sharply from place to place on the whole territory of Poland. The largest number of people per 1 km2 is 21,531, while uninhabited areas account for about 48% of the country. Such uneven, non-Gaussian distribution of the data causes some difficulty in choosing the classification method in geometric choropleth maps. A thorough evaluation of a geometric choropleth map of population data is not possible using only traditional indicators such as the Tabular Accuracy Index (TAI). That is why the aim of the article is to develop an innovative index based on distance analysis and neighbour analysis of grid cells. Two indexes have been suggested in this paper: the Spatial Distance Index (SDI) and the Spatial Contiguity Index (SCI). The paper discusses the use of five classification methods to evaluate choropleth maps of population data, like head-tail breaks, natural breaks, equal intervals, quantile, and geometrical intervals. A comprehensive assessment of such geometric choropleth maps is also done. The research was conducted for the whole territory of Poland, using data from the 2011 National Census of Population and Housing. Population data are presented in the 1km grid. The results of the analysis are shown on thematic maps. A compatibility of the choropleth maps with urban-rural typology of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) was also checked.
Considering the recent mass movement of people fleeing war and oppression, an analysis of changes in migration, in particular an analysis of the final destination refugees choose, seems to be of utmost importance. Many international organisations like UNHCR (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) or EuroStat gather and provide information on the number of refugees and the routes they follow. What is also needed to study the state of affairs closely is a visual form presenting the rapidly changing situation. An analysis of the problem together with up-to-date statistical data presented in the visual form of a map is essential. This article describes methods of preparing such interactive maps displaying movement of refugees in European Union countries. Those maps would show changes taking place throughout recent years but also the dynamics of the development of the refugee crisis in Europe. The ArcGIS software was applied to make the map accessible on the Internet. Additionally, online sources and newspaper articles were used to present the movement of migrants. The interactive map makes it possible to watch spatial data with an opportunity to navigate within the map window. Because of that it is a clear and convenient tool to visualise such processes as refugee migration in Europe.
Population data are generally provided by state census organisations at the pre- defined census enumeration units. However, these datasets very are often required at user- defined spatial units that differ from the census output levels. A number of population estimation techniques have been developed to address these problems. This article is one of those attempts aimed at improving county level population estimates by using spatial disaggregation models with support of buildings characteristic, derived from national topographic database, and average area of a flat. The experimental gridded population surface was created for Opatów county, sparsely populated rural region located in Central Poland. The method relies on geolocation of population counts in buildings, taking into account the building volume and structural building type and then aggregation the people total in 1 km quadrilateral grid. The overall quality of population distribution surface expressed by the mean of RMSE equals 9 persons, and the MAE equals 0.01. We also discovered that nearly 20% of total county area is unpopulated and 80% of people lived on 33% of the county territory.