The present paper investigates the phenomenon of outbound anaphora on the basis of morphologically complex words in English and Polish. The discussion focuses on English noun+noun compounds and on Polish relational adjectives. Examples are provided when the nominal modifi er in an English compound can function as an antecedent for anaphoric expressions, such as possessive pronouns and personal pronouns. It is also shown that nouns which underlie Polish relational adjectives can become visible (as potential antecedents) to anaphoric expressions. It is further argued that the contextual accessibility of the underlying nouns “hidden” inside compounds or inside relational adjectives depends on the semantic transparency of the morphologically complex forms (i.e. compounds or suffi xal derivatives).
The aim of the paper is to discuss vagueness of denominal adjectives in English in their qualitative usage. Semantic indeterminacy will be illustrated for selected denominal adjectives with the suffi x –ial, focusing on the lexeme professorial. The range of the qualitative senses of such adjectives will be exemplifi ed by sentences culled from COCA and other linguistic corpora. It will be argued that typicality effects (as discussed by Lakoff 1987) are relevant to the identifi cation (and fl exibility) of meanings of denominal adjectives.