The article presents results of heat treatment on the high chromium cast iron. The study was carrying out on samples cut from the casting made from chromium cast iron. Those were hardened at different temperatures, then tempered and soft annealed. The heat treatment was performed in a laboratory chamber furnace in the Department of Engineering Alloys and Composites at Faculty of Foundry Engineering AGH. At each stage of the heat treatment the hardness was measured by Vickers and Rockwell methods, and the microscope images were done. Additionally based on images from the optical microscope the microstructure was assessed. Based on these results, the effect of hardening, tempering and soft annealing on the microstructure and hardness of high chromium cast iron was studied. Next the effects of different hardening temperatures on the properties of high chromium cast iron were compared. The study led to systemize the literature data of the parameters of heat treatment of high chromium cast iron, and optimal conditions for heat treatment was proposed for casts of similar properties and parameters.
The article presents the method to assess the diffusion coefficient D in the sub-layer of intermetallic phases formed during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most popular forms of long-term protection of Fe-C alloys against corrosion. The process for producing a protective layer of sufficient quality is closely related to diffusion of atoms of zinc and iron. The simulation consist in performed a hot-dip galvanizing in laboratory condition above Fe-C alloys, in the Department of Engineering of Cast Alloys and Composites. Galvanizing time ranged from 15 to 300 seconds. Then metallographic specimens were prepared, intermetallic layers were measured and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated. It was found that the diffusion coefficient obtained during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and zinc is about two orders of magnitude less than the coefficient obtained on ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7.
The paper presents results of Ti-addition to High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) on the structure and selected mechanical properties. For this study casted two sets of cylinders with dimensions ø20 mm, ø15 mm x 250 mm, for the High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) and with the 4% by mass Ti-addition. Melts were performed in the induction furnace crucible capacity of 15 kg. During the heats the cup with installed S type thermocouple was poured to record the cooling curves. The cylinders were subjected to the static bending strength test. Samples for the test microstructure and Rockwell hardness were cut from the cylinders. The study shows that the addition of titanium had an impact on the structure and thus the properties of High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI). In subsequent studies, through an appropriate choice of chemical composition and proper process control, it is planned to obtain in the structure the titanium carbides TiC and chromium carbides with type (Cr, Fe)7C3.
The present work, presented the study of effect of different inoculants on impact toughness in High Chromium Cast Iron. The molds were pouring in industrial conditions and samples were tested in laboratory in Faculty of Foundry Engineering at AGH. Seven samples were tested - one reference sample, three with different addition of Fe-Ti, and three with different addition of Al. The samples were subjected to impact toughness on Charpy hammer and the hardness test. The presented investigations indicate that for the each inoculant there is an optimal addition at which the sample obtained the highest value of impact toughness. For the Fe-Ti it is 0.66% and for Al is 0.17%. Of all the examined inoculants best results were obtained at a dose of 0.66% Fe-Ti. Titanium is a well-known as a good modifier but very interesting results gives the aluminum. Comparing the results obtained for the Fe-Ti and Al can be seen that in the case of aluminum hardness is more stable. The hardness of all samples is around 40-45 HRC, which is not high for this type of cast iron. Therefore, in future studies it is planned to carry out the heat treatment procedure that may improves hardness.
The present investigation focuses on the study of the influence of titanium inoculation on tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron. Studies of tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron, in particularly the wear resistance are important because of the special application of this material. High Chromium Cast Iron is widely used for parts that require high wear resistance for example the slurry pumps, brick dies, several pieces of mine drilling equipment, rock machining equipment, and similar ones. Presented research described the effects of various amounts of Fe-Ti as an inoculant for wear resistance. The results of wear resistance were collated with microstructural analysis. The melts were conducted in industrial conditions. The inoculation was carried out on the stream of liquid metal. The following amount of inoculants have been used; 0.17% Fe-Ti, 0.33% Fe-Ti and 0.66% Fe-Ti. The tests were performed on the machine type MAN. The assessment of wear resistance was made on the basis of the weight loss. The experimental results indicate that inoculation improve the wear resistance. In every sample after inoculation the wear resistance was at least 20% higher than the reference sample. The best result, thus the smallest wear loss was achieved for inoculation by 0.66% Fe-Ti. There is the correlation between the changing in microstructure and wear resistance. With greater amount of titanium the microstructure is finer. More fine carbides do not crumbling so quickly from the matrix, improving the wear resistance.
The paper presents results of the possibility of adapting the Althoff-Radtke test for High Chromium Cast Iron. The Althoff-Radtke test is a clump attempt used for steel. The Althoff-Radtke test has four different lengths of clamp which qualifies it as a test to quantitatively take into account different kinds of shrinkage ΔL. The length of the slot of the cracked corner and the length of each staple (50 - 350 mm) are the parameters tendency to cast cracks. Castings of white cast iron have a high tendency to hot cracking due to the large range of solidification temperatures, unfavorable kinetics parameters of shrinkage, and especially a lack of expansion before shrinkage. Shrinkage of high chromium white cast iron is similar to the shrinkage of cast steel, and is approximately 2%. Therefore it is important to test susceptibility to hot cracks. Research was carried out under industrial conditions. Four melts were performed, one of the initial chemical composition and the other three modified by different amounts of Fe-Ti, respectively, 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% Fe-Ti. The propensity for hot cracking was based on the observation of the dark surface in the corner of the sample. The study shows that the Althoff-Radtke test can be adapted to determine the tendency for hot cracking of high chromium cast iron. It should however be noted that the test results cannot be compared with those for other alloys.
The modification is a widespread method of improving the strength properties of cast iron. The impact in terms of increasing amounts of eutectic grains has been thoroughly studied while the issue of the impact on the mechanical properties of primary austenite grains has not been studied in depth yet. The paper presents the study of both aspects. The methodology was to conduct the melting cast iron with flake graphite, then modifying the alloy by two sets of modifiers: the commercial modifier, and a mixture of iron powder with a commercial inoculant. The DAAS test was carried out to identify the primary austenite grains. The degree of supercooling was determined and the UTS test was performed as well. Additionally carried out the metallographic specimen allowing for counting grains. It can be concluded that the introduction of the iron powder significantly improved the number of austenite primary grains which resulted in an increase in tensile strength UTS.