Catalytic converters contain the catalytic substance in their structure, which is a mixture of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs). The prices of these metals and a growing demand for them in the market, make it necessary to recycle spent catalytic converters and recovery of PGMs. In the study, the effect of ozone and hydrogen peroxide application on the possibility of extracting PGM from used car catalysts was investigated. The catalytic carrier was milled, sieved and then the fractions with the desired grain size were treated with the appropriate HCl mixture and 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% H2O2, respectively, and the tests were also carried out at temperature 333 K. Ozone tests were conducted with the O3 flow in the range of 1,3,5 g/h. Samples for analysis were collected after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and after 4 h, respectively. The residue after the experiments and filtration process was also analysed. The obtained results confirmed the assumption that PGMs can be extracted using hydrochloric acid with the addition of H2O2 or ozone as oxidants. It allows to significantly intensify the carried out reactions and to improve the rate of PGMs transfer to the solution.
The main purpose of the present work was to validate the numerical model for the pulse-step liquid steel alloying method using a physical simulator that enables the observation and recording of phenomena occurring during the continuous steel casting process. The facility under investigation was a single-nozzle tundish equipped with a dam. To physical trials the glass water model was made on a scale of 2:5. For the mathematical description of turbulence during liquid steel alloying process, the k-ε and k-ω models were employed in the simulations. Based on the computer simulations and physical trials carried out, alloy addition behaviour and mixing curves for different tundish alloy addition feeding positions were obtained. The change in the location of alloy addition feeding to the liquid steel had an effect on the process of alloy addition spread in the liquid steel bulk and on the mixing time.
Objective: The goal of this contribution is to present and familiarize the medical community with the method for the assessment of trace and essentials elements in prostate tissue sections. Materials and methods: X-ray fl uorescence based technique (namely Synchrotron Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE)) is described in terms of methodology, sample preparation and the evaluation of the recorded results (spectral data sets). Materials for the samples were collected from the patients underwent radical prostatectomy due to Adenocarcinoma prostatae. Specimens were freeze-dried, cut by microtome (to the thickness of 15 μm), one slice was placed on Mylar foil (for SRIXE measurements) and adjacent one on microscopic glass (for histopathological assessment). Results: Results presented here show the usability of SRIXE method for the evaluation of concentration of trace and essential elements in prostate tissue sections with the spatial resolution better than 15 microns. Discussion: Histopathological analysis of samples, which is only focused on morphological features, is unable to reveal information about changes in biochemical signature of tissues aff ected by the illness. SRIXE is a powerful and promising technique to analyse even very low concentrations of selected elements at the cellular level without any labelling or separating procedures. Obtained results may be correlated with classic histopathological assessment allowing for drawing conclusions on the changes in certain elements concentrations with the progression of disease. Moreover, mentioned in this work analysis, can be performed for any type of biological tissues.