The aim of the current study was to examine the structure of an alloy treated at various temperatures up to 2,000–2,100 °C. Among research techniques for studying alloy structure there were the electron and optical microstructure, X-ray structure, and spectral analysis, and for studying the developed furnace geometric parameters the authors employed mathematical modeling method. The research was performed using aluminum smelting gas-fired furnaces and electric arc furnaces. The objects of the study were aluminum alloys of the brand AK7p and AK6, as well as hydrogen and aluminum oxide in the melt. For determining the hydrogen content in the aluminum alloy, the vacuum extraction method was selected. Authors have established that treatment of molten aluminum alloy in contact with carbon melt at high temperatures of 2,000–2,100 °C has resulted in facilitating reduction of hydrogen and aluminum oxide content in the melt by 40-43% and 50-58%, respectively, which is important because hydrogen and aluminum oxide adversely affect the structure and properties of the alloy. Such treatment contributes to the formation of the extremely fine-grained microstructure of aluminum alloy.