Our survey of data collected in the Chromosome Number Database for Polish angiosperms indicated that the 1,498 species with chromosome counts represent 40% of the total angiosperms (3,719) occurring in Poland, including 1,205 native species (53% of native species) and 194 anthropophytes (56% of anthropophytes). The chromosome numbers are known for all native species occurring in Poland within 298 genera and 46 families, and for all anthropophytes from 79 genera and 11 families. The remaining angiosperm groups are less explored: chromosome counts from Poland are known for 9% of cultivated species and 5% of ephemerophytes. According to generic basic chromosome numbers, 46.44% of Polish angiosperms have been classified as polyploid. By three different threshold methods, the contribution of polyploid plants to the Polish flora is 64.64%, 50.89% or 42.89%. Polyploidy is more common among indigenous than non-indigenous plants, and the ploidy distribution among plants from the Polish Tatras does not differ significantly from that observed in the rest of native Polish plants.
Abstract The chromosome numbers and frequency of polyploids were compared in life forms of Asteraceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae. Both parameters were higher in Poaceae and Rosaceae than in Asteraceae. Among the life forms, long-lived plants including perennials and woody plants (shrubs and trees) generally had higher chromosome numbers and consequently polyploid frequencies than short-lived species (annuals and biennials). The families surveyed have different frequencies of life forms. Asteraceae and Rosaceae are both dicots, but the life forms in Asteraceae are more similar to Poaceae than to Rosaceae. To separate the influence of life form, in a series of tests we compared life forms from the same families. These results also showed that long-lived forms generally have more chromosomes than short-lived ones.
Aluminium is one of the main soil components. Usually it is a part of non-toxic aluminosilicates but in low pH values its mobility is higher and - especially in monomeric form is toxic for plants. Selenium is an essential element necessary for animals and humans. Its compounds have anticancer and anti mutagenic character. However, its high uptake from environment, e.g. with food or water could lead to various diseases including embryonic deformity, decreased hatchling survival and death to aquatic organisms. Soil contamination with aluminium leads to disturbances in plant growth as a result of low calcium and magnesium uptake. High concentrations of selenium lead to its accumulation in plant tissues what is the beginning of selenium fate in food chain. In this work a cultivated layer of soils located near five industry plants in the town of Opole (southern Poland) were investigated. Aluminium and selenium content in soils is an effect of two factors: its natural occurrence in rocks (natural content) and human activity - especially chemicals from agriculture, industrial and transport pollutants. Aluminium was determined in the range of 3440 to 14804 mg/kg d.w. Obtained results of selenium concentration covered the range from 27.1 to 958.1 μg/kg d.w. These results are slightly higher than concentrations noted in natural or non-polluted soils, but still low. These amounts of selenium could have more positive than negative effects. Aluminium and selenium concentrations were discussed concurrently with base soils parameters, such as pH, EC and granulometric fractions composition.
Holoparasitic genera within the family Orobanchaceae are characterized by greatly reduced vegetative organs; therefore, molecular analysis has proved to be a useful tool in solving taxonomic problems in this family. For this purpose, we studied all species of the genera Orobanche and Phelipanche occurring in Central Europe, specifically in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria, supplemented by samples mainly from Spain, France, Germany, and Ukraine. They were investigated using nuclear sequences (ITS region) and a plastid trnLtrnF region. The aim of this study was to examine phylogenetic relationships within Orobanche and Phelipanche from Central Europe; we focused on problematic species and aggregates, recent taxonomic changes in these (rank and secondary ranks), and host ranges. The most interesting results concern the exlusion of O. mayeri from O. alsatica aggr. Additionally, following the rules of traditional taxonomy, the correct names and types of some secondary ranks are given and, as a result of this, a new combination below the Phelipanche genus is made (P. sect. Trionychon). The host ranges of the investigated species in Central Europe include 102 species from 12 families, most often from Asteraceae. For this purpose, ca. 400 localities were examined in the field. Moreover, data acquired from the literature and European and Asian herbaria were used.