During the cruise of the research ship r/v Oceania owned by the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Sopot a research on mineral suspension concentration and dispersion distributions was conducted. The research area included the western part of the Baltic Sea, the Danish Straits, the Norwegian Sea, the waters around Spitsbergen and the North Atlantic Ocean. Samples of water were collected from the surface layer. They were subjected to microscopic analysis. Measurements were done with a projection microscope (magnification lOOOx) and using the Burker's table. After counting the particles dispersion distribution was determined. The largest concentration of mineral suspension was noted offshore in the Norwegian Sea and around Spitsbergen and the smallest in the central Atlantic Ocean.
Concentration and dispersion distributions of mineral suspension and crude-oil particles in waters of the Kongsfiord (Spitsbergen) were examined in 1997. Most suspension occurs at glacier margins and decreases towards a fiord outlet.
Temperature of superficial water in the Ezcurra Inlet was measured from March 1989 to February 1990, with a use of a mercurial thermometer with accuracy +0.1°C. Temperature was measured usually once a month at selected points. Influence of various factors on temperature of superficial water was preliminarily analysed. Basing on these results, temperature distribution in the mentioned area was determined. Mean yearly temperatures for each station, average space temperatures on measurement days and mean yearly temperatures for the whole area of the Ezcurra Inlet were calculated.
This study examines the causal links between improvements in economic freedom and changes in GDP per capita of new EU members in transition in the period 2000‒2009. The empirical results suggest significant causality running from changes in monetary and fiscal freedom, trade openness, regulation of credit, labour, and business, legal structure and security of property rights, and access to sound money to movements in GDP per capita, especially in less and moderately developed CEE transition countries. Moreover, we find evidence that improvements in economic freedom are one of the main factors stimulating the convergence of these economies towards rich EU members. The evidence of causality in the opposite direction is much weaker.