The aim of the study was to assess the physiological stiffness of the normal canine jejunal mucosa based on shear wave elastography. The study was carried out on 60 dogs. In all the animals studied, the abdominal ultrasound was carried out using the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer system. The site of the jejunal elastography was determined using standard ultrasonography and all the measurements were carried out thrice. The stiffness of the area examined was determined during each measurement. Mean values were calculated based on the results obtained. The normal stiffness of the jejunal mucosa ranged from 1.305 kPa to 9.319 kPa (mean 5.31 ± 2.04 kPa). Based on our findings, we determined the range of normal values of the jejunal mucosal stiffness in healthy dogs. In addition, shear wave elastography was found to be safe and easy to perform. Moreover, it did not require anaesthesia or patient immobilisation for long periods.
Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
The aim of this article is to identify the role, that special residential law issued by the municipal executive authorities plays in the metropolises development. The article presents key urban and legal barriers related to the functioning of the spacial management system. The article ends with recommendations for further actions related to repair local spatial policy.
Praca zawiera analizy i oceny skutków wybranych regulacji polskiego prawa dotyczących gospodarki przestrzennej, zwłaszcza planowania przestrzennego. Różni się od poprzednich raportów położeniem większego nacisku na bariery blokujące naprawę wadliwego systemu publicznego zarządzania przestrzenią. Praca nie jest próbą oceny prawa pod względem jego poprawności jurydycznej i legislacyjnej.
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.