Management of metropolitan areas – foreign experience and their Polish implications. The aim of the article is to present problems of development of metrotopolitan areas as premises for creating various forms of territorial integrated management. The reference point is the Report “The OECD Metropolitan Governance Survey” (2014). The models of metropolitan integration were analyzed in both: “the top-down” legal and political solutions of European countries as well as “bottom-up initiatives” of building local government partnerships. The metropolitan reforms in Germany, France and Italy were discussed as good solutions. Against this background, the dilemmas of managing metropolitan areas in Poland, implementation of EU instrument – ITI and possible direction of metropolitan reform are presented.
The phytoextraction is a process that uses living plants for cleaning up the heavy metals from contaminated soil. The cadmium and lead contamination of soils results from the application of sludge or urban composts, fertilizers, pesticides, motorization, metallurgy, and different technological processes. In industrial terrain the content of cadmium and lead in soils has increased in the recent years. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Amaranthus caudatus L. ‘Atropurpureus’ and Ricinus communis L. ‘Sanguineus Apache’ for phytoextraction of cadmium and lead. Two species of ornament plants, i.e. Amaranthus caudatus L. ‘Atropurpureus’ and Ricinus communis L. ‘Sanguineus Apache’, were planted in drainless containers in a substrate artificially polluted with cadmium and lead in order to evaluate their suitability for phytoremediation of soils or substrates contaminated with these metals. Cadmium was applied at increasing rates of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg Cd∙dm-3 in the form of cadmium sulfate 3CdSO4∙8H2O, while lead was used at 0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg Pb∙dm-3 in the form of lead acetate (CH3COO)2Pb∙3H2O. The applied doses of cadmium and lead in the experiment reflected different degrees of soil pollution. After five months of growth it was found that Amaranthus caudatus L. accumulated the biggest concentrations of cadmium and lead in leaves and the lowest concentrations in inflorescences. Ricinus communis L. accumulated the highest concentrations of cadmium in stems, while the lowest concentrations in inflorescences, whereas the biggest concentration of lead was accumulated in inflorescences and the least lead was accumulated in leaves. The biggest reduction of cadmium and lead concentrations after the completion of the experiment was found in substrates, in which Amaranthus caudatus L. was grown. The tested species of ornamental plants may be used in the phytoextraction of cadmium and lead from soils contaminated.
This paper presents for the first time X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) analysis as a technique for Silurian graptolite detection in rocks. The samples come from the Jantar Bituminous Claystones Member of the Opalino core, Baltic Basin, northern Poland. Images were obtained with spatial resolution of 25 μm, which enabled the authors to create a 3-D visualization and to calculate the ratio of fissure and graptolite volume to the total sample volume. A set of μCT slices was used to create a 3-D reconstruction of graptolite geometry. These μCT slices were processed to obtain a clearly visible image and the volume ratio. A copper X-ray source filter was used during exposure to reduce radiograph artifacts. Visualization of graptolite tubaria (rhabdosomes) enabled Demirastrites simulans to be identified. Numerical models of graptolites reveal promising applications for paleontological research and thus for the recognition and characterization of reservoir rocks.