The paper describes influence of rare earth metals (REMs) on G20Mn5 cast steel microstructure and mechanical properties. The cerium mixture of the following composition was used to modify cast steel: 49.8% Ce, 21.8% La, 17.1% Nd, 5,5% Pr and 5.35% of REMs. Cast steel was melted in industrial conditions. Two melts of non-modified and modified cast steel were made. Test ingots were subject to heat treatment by hardening (920°C/water) and tempering (720°C/air). Heat treatment processes were also performed in industrial conditions. After cutting flashes off samples of cast steel were collected with purpose to analyze chemical composition, a tensile test and impact toughness tests were conducted and microstructure was subject to observations. Modification with use of mischmetal did not cause significant changes in cast steel tensile strength and yield strength, while higher values were detected for fractures in the Charpy impact test, as they were twice as high as values for the data included in the PN-EN 10213:2008 standard. Observations performed by means of light and scanning microscopy proved occurrence of significant differences in grain dimensions and morphology of non-metallic inclusions. Adding REMs resulted in grain fragmentation and transformed inclusion shapes to rounded ones. Chemical composition analyses indicated that round inclusions in modified cast steel were generally oxysulphides containing cerium and lanthanum. In the paper the author proved positive influence of modification on G20Mn5 cast steel mechanical properties.
This article discusses the influence of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surfacing of duplex cast steel on its hardness and structure. The samples of 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo ferritic-austenitic cast steel were subjected to single-overlay processes with the use of solid wire having the chemical composition similar to that of the duplex cast steel. As a result of the surfacing, the welds were obtained that had no welding imperfections with a smooth transition to the base material. In the test without the heat treatment, directly below the fusion line, we observe a ferrite band with a width of approximately 200 m without visible austenite areas. Some of the samples were then solution treated (1060°C). Both variants, without and after solution heat treatment, were subjected to testing. Significant changes in the microstructure of the joint were observed after the heat treatment process (heat affected zone and weld microstructure changes). In both areas, an increase in the austenite volume fraction after solution heat treatment was observed. Changes in the microhardness of the ferrite in the HAZ area directly below the fusion line were also observed.
This paper presents influence of rare earth metals (REM) on the properties of GP240GH cast carbon steel. The research has been performed on successive industrial melts. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metal was modified. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. It was found that non metallic inclusions the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength were all changed. The following properties were tested: mechanical properties (σy, σUTS), plastic properties (necking, elongation) and impact strength (SCI). In the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated.
This paper presents the results of Cr - Ni 18/9 austenitic cast steel modifications by mischmetal. The study was conducted on industrial melts. Cast steel was melted in an electric induction furnace with a capacity of 2000 kg and a basic lining crucible. .The mischmetal was introduced into the ladle during tapping of the cast steel from the furnace. The effectiveness of modification was examined with the carbon content of 0.1% and the presence of δ ferrite in the structure of cast steel stabilized with titanium. The changes in the structure of cast steel and their effect on mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion were studied. It was found that rare earth metals decrease the sulfur content in cast steel and above all, they cause a distinct change in morphology of the δ ferrite and non-metallic inclusions. These changes have improved mechanical properties. R02, Rm, and A5 and toughness increased significantly. There was a great increase of the resistance to intergranular corrosion in the Huey test. The study confirmed the high efficiency of cast steel modification by mischmetal in industrial environments. The final effect of modification depends on the form and manner of placing mischmetal into the liquid metal and the melting technology, ie the degree of deoxidation and desulfurization of the metal in the furnace.
This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM). The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 ) and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa). The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.