Consumption of energy is one of the important indicators in developing countries, but a lot of companies from the energy sector have to cope with three key challenges, namely how to reduce their impact on the environment, how to ensure the low cost of the energy production and how to improve the system overall performance? For Polish energy market, the number of challenges is greater. The growing demand for electricity and contemporary development of nuclear power technology allow today’s design, implement new solutions for high energy conversion system low unit cost for energy and fuel production. In the present paper, numerical analysis of modular high-temperature nuclear reactor coupled with the steam cycle for electricity production has been presented. The analysed system consists of three independent cycles. The first two are high-temperature nuclear reactor cycles which are equipped with two high-temperature nuclear reactors, heat exchangers, blowers, steam generators. The third cycle is a Rankine cycle which is equipped with up to four steam turbines, that operate in the heat recovery system. The analysis of such a system shows that is possible to achieve significantly greater efficiency than offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology.
The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.