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## Simple spatial prediction - least squares prediction, simple kriging, and conditional expectation of normal vector

### Abstract

The aim of the paper is the comparison of the least squares prediction presented by Heiskanen and Moritz (1967) in the classical handbook “Physical Geodesy” with the geostatistical method of simple kriging as well as in case of Gaussian random fields their equivalence to conditional expectation. The paper contains also short notes on the extension of simple kriging to ordinary kriging by dropping the assumption of known mean value of a random field as well as some necessary information on random fields, covariance function and semivariogram function. The semivariogram is emphasized in the paper, for two reasons. Firstly, the semivariogram describes broader class of phenomena, and for the second order stationary processes it is equivalent to the covariance function. Secondly, the analysis of different kinds of phenomena in terms of covariance is more common. Thus, it is worth introducing another function describing spatial continuity and variability. For the ease of presentation all the considerations were limited to the Euclidean space (thus, for limited areas) although with some extra effort they can be extended to manifolds like sphere, ellipsoid, etc.
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## Conversion between Cartesian and geodetic coordinates on a rotational ellipsoid by solving a system of nonlinear equations

### Abstract

A new method to transform from Cartesian to geodetic coordinates is presented. It is based on the solution of a system of nonlinear equations with respect to the coordinates of the point projected onto the ellipsoid along the normal. Newton’s method and a modification of Newton’s method were applied to give third-order convergence. The method developed was compared to some well known iterative techniques. All methods were tested on three ellipsoidal height ranges: namely, (-10 – 10 km) (terrestrial), (20 – 1000 km), and (1000 – 36000 km) (satellite). One iteration of the presented method, implemented with the third-order convergence modified Newton’s method, is necessary to obtain a satisfactory level of accuracy for the geodetic latitude ( σ φ < 0.0004”) and height ( σ h < 10 − 6 km, i.e. less than a millimetre) for all the heights tested. The method is slightly slower than the method of Fukushima (2006) and Fukushima’s (1999) fast implementation of Bowring’s (1976) method.
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## Kriging approach for local height transformations

### Abstract

In the paper a transformation between two height datums (Kronstadt’60 and Kronstadt’86, the latter being a part of the present National Spatial Reference System in Poland) with the use of geostatistical method – kriging is presented. As the height differences between the two datums reveal visible trend a natural decision is to use the kind of kriging method that takes into account nonstationarity in the average behavior of the spatial process (height differences between the two datums). Hence, two methods were applied: hybrid technique (a method combining Trend Surface Analysis with ordinary kriging on least squares residuals) and universal kriging. The background of the two methods has been presented. The two methods were compared with respect to the prediction capabilities in a process of crossvalidation and additionally they were compared to the results obtained by applying a polynomial regression transformation model. The results obtained within this study prove that the structure hidden in the residual part of the model and used in kriging methods may improve prediction capabilities of the transformation model.
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## Empirical tests of performance of some M – estimators

### Abstract

The paper presents an empirical comparison of performance of three well known M – estimators (i.e. Huber, Tukey and Hampel’s M – estimators) and also some new ones. The new M – estimators were motivated by weighting functions applied in orthogonal polynomials theory, kernel density estimation as well as one derived from Wigner semicircle probability distribution. M – estimators were used to detect outlying observations in contaminated datasets. Calculations were performed using iteratively reweighted least-squares (IRLS). Since the residual variance (used in covariance matrices construction) is not a robust measure of scale the tests employed also robust measures i.e. interquartile range and normalized median absolute deviation. The methods were tested on a simple leveling network in a large number of variants showing bad and good sides of M – estimation. The new M – estimators have been equipped with theoretical tuning constants to obtain 95% efficiency with respect to the standard normal distribution. The need for data – dependent tuning constants rather than those established theoretically is also pointed out.
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