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Abstract

Julian Pagaczewski (1874–1940) was a pupil of Marian Sokolowski at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow; after graduating in History of Art in 1900, he worked at the National Museum from 1901–1911, and then took a post at the Jagiellonian University. He obtained his doctorate in 1908, his postdoctoral habilitation in 1909, became associate professor in 1917, and in 1921 – a full professor; his chair was liquidated in 1933. During the interwar period, he was the major figure in art history in Krakow. His research interests included Polish art of all periods (apart from contemporary), seen in the vast context of European art, particularly the handic rafts (gold-smithery, tapestry, embroidery) and sculpture. Following in his master’s footsteps, he adopted a philological and historical method of research, and soon enriched it with an in–depth comparative and stylistic analysis; he was strongly influenced by the Viennese scholars (Franz Wickhoff, Alois Riegl), and above all Heinrich Wölfflin. His studies show a great mastery of the methodology of research, and the later ones are exemplary of an art history focused on issues of style. He also had a reputation as an outstanding teacher a nd educator; despite his relatively short period of professorship, he helped form almost all the eminent art historians of the next gen eration, who, after World War II, determined the nature of the discipline in Krakow, largely continuing with his methodological approach and passing it on to the next generation of scholars.
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Abstract

This paper presents the Late Glacial stage of the development of the Białe Ługi peatland in the southern Holy Cross Mountains, based on a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental data. A complex analysis of palynology, Cladocera, sed imentology, geochemistry and 14C dating were used. Organic deposition was initiated during the Oldest Dryas. The sedimentary record of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems reflects considerable difference between cooler (Oldest, Older and Younger Dryas) and warmer phases (Břlling and Allerřd). Periods of intensified interaction between aeolian processes and peatland are related to stages of disappearing vegetation and changes in aquatic invertebrate communities. We therefore suggest that peatlands were created as a result of local lithological-structural, tectonic, hydrogeological and morphological conditions, and the peatland development rate was largely influenced by changing climatic conditions, which determined local vegetation development, intensity of denudation processes and water level changes. The results validate significance of selection and use of several methods, as well as value of biogenic deposits from the Białe Ługi peatland as archives of past climate change in the Małopolska Upland. Relatively stable water conditions and uninter rupted biogenic sedimentation in the Late Glacial that were provided by the geological structure and relief suggest the studied peatland is a leading one in the region.
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