The paper presents the concept of a fully planar treeshaped antenna with quasi-fractal geometry. The shape of the proposed radiator is based on a multi-resonant structure. Developed planar tree has symmetrical branches with different length and is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with modified edge of the ground plane. The antenna of size 29 mm x25 mm has been designed on Taconic - RF-35 substrate (r = 3.5, tg= 0.0018, h = 0.762 mm). The paper shows simulated and measured characteristics of return loss, as well as measured radiation patterns. The proposed antenna could be a good candidate for broadband applications (for instance: wideband imaging for medical application and weather monitoring radars in satellite communication etc.)
The geodetic measurements optimization problem has played a crucial role in the mining areas affected by continuous ground movement. Such movements are most frequently measured with the classical geodetic methods such as levelling, tachymetry or GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The measuring techniques are selected with respect to the dynamics of the studied phenomena, surface hazard degree, as well as the financial potential of the mining company. Land surface changes caused by underground exploitation are observed with some delay because of the mining and geological conditions of the deposit surroundings. This delay may be considerable in the case of salt deposits extraction due to slow convergence process, which implies ground subsidence maximum up to a few centimeters per year. Measuring of such displacements requires high precision instruments and methods. In the case of intensely developed urban areas, a high density benchmark network has to be provided. Therefore, the best solution supporting the monitoring of vertical ground displacements in the areas located above the salt deposits seems to be the Sentinel 1-A radar imaging satellite system. The main goal of the investigation was to verify if imaging radar from the Sentinel 1 mission could be applied to monitor of slow ground vertical movement above word heritage Wieliczka salt mine. The outcome of the analysis, which was based on DInSAR (Differential SAR Interferometry). technology, is the surface distribution of annual subsidence in the period of 2015-2016. The comparison of the results with levelling confirmed the high accuracy of satellite observations. What is significant, the studies allowed to identify areas with the greatest dynamics of vertical ground movements, also in the regions where classical surveying was not conducted. The investigation proved that with the use of Sentinel-1 images sub centimeters slow vertical movements could be obtained.
The prevalence of heavy metals in wastewater is the cause of death of numerous organisms which take part in biological treatment of wastewater, that is why the aim of the study has been to asses the influence of cadmium and copper ions upon the microfauna of activated sludge. 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg/l of Cd2+ and Cu2+ were added into the samples of activated sludge and then, after 24 hours, the microscopic observations of activated sludge microfauna were carried out, and all changes concerning the amount of microfauna, functional groups, and species composition were determined. The results obtained allowed to find a high level of toxicity of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions to activated sludge microfauna, which resulted in the changes in the value of the Sludge Biotic Index and classes of sludge, survivability of microfauna, and reduction in the number of taxonomic units. It was observed that Cu2+ ions are more toxic to activated sludge microfauna than Cd2+ ions in identical doses. Organisms sensitive to Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions have been found to be testate amoebae, Aspidisca sp. and Epistylis sp., as well as organisms relatively sensitive to tested metals, which turned out to be ciliates of Opercularia and Vorticella convalaria genera.
Zjawiska dynamiczne – zarówno pochodzenia antropogenicznego, jak i naturalnego – występują zazwyczaj nieoczekiwanie i ujawniają się z dużą prędkością. Zmiany morfologii powierzchni terenu cechują się w takich przypadkach dużą gwałtownością, a rejony ich występowania nie podlegają najczęściej stałemu monitoringowi naziemnemu. Z tego względu kompleksowe opisanie skutków zaistnienia zjawisk tego typu – zwłaszcza po upływie pewnego czasu od ich wystąpienia – jest trudne, a często niemożliwe. J ednocześnie, dla badań nad charakterystykami jakościowymi i ilościowymi zjawisk dynamicznych, wartości i kierunki przemieszczeń powierzchni terenu będące ich wynikiem mają duże znaczenie. Zastosowanie satelitarnej interferometrii radarowej w badaniach zmian rzeźby powierzchni terenu wywołanych przez zjawiska takie jak trzęsienia ziemi jest już od pewnego czasu rutyną. N iemniej misja S entinel, która prowadzona jest przez Europejską Agencję Kosmiczną, stwarza nowe możliwości prowadzenia monitoringu na obszarach, na których wystąpiły zjawiska o charakterze dynamicznym. Autorzy postanowili sprawdzić, czy wstrząs pochodzenia górniczego generuje ruchy powierzchni terenu oraz zbadać, w jakiej odległości od epicentrum mają one miejsce oraz określić rząd wielkości ruchów tego typu. Analizy interferometryczne, które oparto na metodzie satelitarnej interferometrii różnicowej DInSAR na podstawie zobrazowań radarowych pochodzących z misji S entinel pozwoliły na uzyskanie odpowiedzi na te pytania.
Despite the considerable progress that has recently been made in medicine, the treatment of viral infections is still a problem remaining to be solved. This especially concerns infections caused by newly emerging patogenes such as: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus or SARS-coronavirus. There are several lines of evidence that the unusual genetic polymorphism of these viruses is responsible for the observed therapeutic difficulties. In order to determine whether some parameters describing a very complex and variable viral population can be used as prognostic factors during antiviral treatment computational methods were applied. To this end, the structure of the viral population and virus evolution in the organisms of two patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C were analyzed. Here we demonstrated that phylogenetic trees and Hamming distances best reflect the differences between virus populations present in the organisms of patients who responded positively and negatively to the applied therapy. Interestingly, the obtained results suggest that based on the elaborated method of virus population analysis one can predict the final outcome of the treatment even before it has started.
The photochemical degradation of the sulfadiazine (SDZ) was studied. The photochemical processes used in degradation of SDZ were UV and UV/H2O2. In the experiments hydrogen peroxide was applied at different concentrations: 10 mg/dm3 (2.94*10-4 M), 100 mg/dm3 (2.94*10-3 M), 1 g/dm3 (2.94*10-2 M) and 10 g/dm3 (2.94*10-1 M). The concentrations of SDZ during the experiment were controlled by means of HPLC. The best results of sulfadiazine degradation, the 100% removal of the compound, were achieved by photolysis using UV radiation in the presence of 100 mg H2O2/dm3 (2.94*10-3 M). The determined rate constant of sulfadiazine reaction with hydroxyl radicals kOH was equal 1.98*109 M-1s-1.