Silica multichannel monoliths modified with zirconia, titania and alumina have been used as reactive cores of microreactors and studied in chemoselective reduction (MPV) of cyclohexanon/benzaldehyde with 2-butanol as a hydrogen donor. The attachment of metal oxides to the silica surface was confirmed by FT–IR spectroscopy, and dispersion of metal oxides was studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy. the catalytic activity of the lewis acid centres in both chemical processes decreased in the order zirconia > alumina > titania. This activity is in good agreement with dispersion and coordination of metal species. good stability of zirconia-grafted reactors was confirmed. high porosity of the monoliths and the presence of large meandering flow-through channels with a diameter of ca. 30 mm facilitate fluid transport and very effective mixing in the microreactors. The whole synthesis process is perfectly in line with trends of modern flow chemistry
In this paper the overview of the recent study on the rare-earth activated waveguides performed in the Optoelectronic Department of IMiO is presented. We reported on the development of rare earth-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) glass fibers that allow a construction of a new family of visible and ultraviolet fiber lasers pumped by upconversion. Especially the performance of holmium devices is presented. The properties of laser planar waveguides obtained by the LPE process and the growth conditions of rare earths doped YAG layers are presented. In this paper we present also the theoretical study of the nonlinear operation of planar waveguide laser, as an example the microdisk Nd:YAG structure is discussed. We derived an approximate formula which relates the small signal gain in the Nd:YAG active medium and the laser characteristics, obtained for whispering-gallery modes and radial modes, to the output power and real parameters of the laser structure
Determining the boundary conditions of heat transfer in steel manufacturing is a very important issue. The heat transfer effect during contact of two solid bodies occurs in the continuous casting steel process. The temperature fields of solids taking part in heat transfer are described by the Fourier equation. The boundary conditions of heat transfer must be determined to get an accurate solution to the heat conduction equation. The heat flux between the tool and the object processed depends mainly on temperature, pressure and time. It is very difficult and complicated to accomplish direct identification and determination of the boundary conditions in this process. The solution to this problem may be the construction of a process model, performing measurements at a test stand, and using numerical methods. The proposed model must be verified on the basis of parameters which can easily be measured in industrial processes. One of them is temperature, which may be used in inverse methods to determine the heat transfer coefficient. This work presents the methodology for determining the heat flux between two solid bodies staying in contact. It consists of two stages – the experiment and the numerical computation. The problem was solved by using the finite element method (FEM) and a numerical program developed at AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The findings of the conducted research are relationships describing the value of the heat flux versus the contact time and surface temperature.