The secretiveness of sonar operation can be achieved by using continuous frequency-modulated sounding signals with reduced power and significantly prolonged repeat time. The application of matched filtration in the sonar receiver provides optimal conditions for detection against the background of white noise and reverberation, and a very good resolution of distance measurements of motionless targets. The article shows that target movement causes large range measurement errors when linear and hyperbolic frequency modulations are used. The formulas for the calculation of these errors are given. It is shown that for signals with linear frequency modulation the range resolution and detection conditions deteriorate. The use of hyperbolic frequency modulation largely eliminates these adverse effects.
Stealth in military sonars applications may be ensured through the use of low power signals making them difficult to intercept by the enemy. In recent years, silent sonar design has been investigated by the Department of Marine Electronic Systems of the Gdansk University of Technology. This article provides an analysis of how an intercept sonar operated by the enemy can detect silent sonar signals. To that end a theoretical intercept sonar model was developed with formulas that can numerically determine the intercept ranges of silent sonar sounding signals. This was tested for a variety of applications and water salinities. Because they are also presented in charts, the results can be used to compare the intercept ranges of silent sonar and traditional pulse sonar.
Stealth is a frequent requirement in military applications and involves the use of devices whose signals are difficult to intercept or identify by the enemy. The silent sonar concept was studied and developed at the Department of Marine Electronic Systems of the Gdansk University of Technology. The work included a detailed theoretical analysis, computer simulations and some experimental research. The results of the theoretical analysis and computer simulation suggested that target detection and positioning accuracy deteriorate as the speed of the target increases, a consequence of the Doppler effect. As a result, more research and measurements had to be conducted to verify the initial findings. To ensure that the results can be compared with those from the experimental silent sonar model, the target's actual position and speed had to be precisely controlled. The article presents the measurement results of a silent sonar model looking at its detection, range resolution and problems of incorrect positioning of moving targets as a consequence of the Doppler effect. The results were compared with those from the theoretical studies and computer simulations.
The article presents methods that help in the elimination of mutual clutter as well as the consequences of two FM sounding signal sonars operating in the same body of water and frequency band. An in-depth analysis of mutual clutter was carried out. The effects of sounding signal differentiation were determined, as was the Doppler effect on mutual clutter suppression. One of the methods analysed is of particular interest in a situation in which collaborating sonars are operating in opposite frequency modulation directions. This method is effective for both linear and hyperbolic frequency modulations. A formula was derived, identifying exactly how much quantities of clutter may be lessened. The work included comprehensive computer simulations and measurements as well as tests in real-life conditions.
The understanding the influence of biological processes on the characteristics of the signals backscattered by the sea floor is crucial in the development of the hydroacoustical benthic habitat classification techniques. The impact of the microphytobenthos photosynthesis on the acoustical backscattering properties of the Atlantic sandy sediments was previously demonstrated by Holliday et al. (2004) and Wildman and Huettel (2012). To account for the sensitivity of the hydroacoustical classification techniques to the backscattering properties of local marine sediments, it is important to understand the microphytobenthos photosynthesis impact for the Baltic Sea where the techniques are being actively developed now. This is the main motivation of the paper. In the paper the influence of the microphytobenthos photosynthesis on the characteristics of the echo signals reflected by sandy sediments in the typical Baltic temperature and the salinity conditions is discussed. The interdisciplinary multiday laboratory experiment was conducted to study the impact of benthic microalgal photosynthesis on the characteristics of the echo signal reflected by sandy sediments. Hydroacoustical data were collected under controlled constant light, temperature and salinity conditions. The oxygen content at different levels of the water column was simultaneously monitored.